In 1791-95 it was used as the Spanish Embassy and soon after, in 1797, the 2nd Marquess of Hertford (b.1743-d.1822) acquired the lease of the house. The 2nd Marquess used the house as his principal London residence, holding many parties there, the most prestigious of which was the Allied Sovereigns’ Ball held after the defeat of Napoleon in 1814. The 3rd Marquess (b.1777-d.1842), as Earl of Yarmouth, was a close friend of the Prince of Wales and from 1810 to 1819 sometimes acted as saleroom agent for him. In 1836-51 the house was let by the 3rd Marquess as the French Embassy. The 4th Marquess (b.1800-d.1870) lived largely in Paris and used Hertford House as a London store for his increasing art collection. It was only with the Paris Revolution of 1871 that Richard Wallace (b.1818-d.1890), the 4th Marquess’ illegitimate son, decided to move back to London, bringing a substantial amount of his Parisian collection with him. He redeveloped the house, creating a range of galleries on the first floor. After his death the house was converted into a public museum by the Office of Works and first opened as a museum on 22 June 1900.
Sir Richard Wallace, 1st Baronet (21 June 1818 – 20 July 1890) was an English art collector. He was the illegitimate son of Richard Seymour-Conway, 4th Marquess of Hertford, for whom he worked as secretary, and inherited his unentailed father's estates, and extensive collection of European art in 1871. Wallace expanded the collection himself, and in 1897, after his death, the collection was donated to the nation by Wallace's widow. It is now located in what was his London home, Hertford House, Manchester Square, London - which houses the Wallace Collection. His bequests to the people of Lisburn in Northern Ireland include the Wallace Park and The Wallace High School. His town house on Lisburn's Castle Street is now used as offices by the South Eastern Regional College. His country house at Sudbourne Hall, near Orford, Suffolk, was demolished during the 20th century. Despite his father's penurious reputation, Wallace achieved fame during the Siege of Paris for notable acts of charity. At his own expense, Wallace organized two full scale ambulances to operate during the siege; one to serve French wounded, and the second for the benefit of sick and destitute Britons." By the end of the siege, Wallace is estimated to have privately contributed as much as 2.5 million (1870) francs to the needy of Paris. This is perhaps equivalent to $6.5 million in 2010 money. As a result, Wallace was thought to be the most popular British citizen inhabiting Paris during the siege. The last balloon to leave Paris before its capitulation was named for him as was a Paris boulevard. He received a Legion d'Honneur for his efforts. Wallace was created baronet in 1871 and was a Conservative and Unionist Member of Parliament for Lisburn from 1873 to 1885. He was Honorary President of Ipswich Museum from 1874 until his death.
The Wallace Collection holds one of the most important collections of French furniture anywhere in the world. Totalling more than five hundred pieces, the collection consists largely of eighteenth-century French furniture but also includes some significant pieces of nineteenth-century French furniture, as well as interesting Italian furniture and a few English and German pieces. The collection ranges from cabinet furniture, much of which is veneered with brass and turtleshell marquetry (commonly known as "Boulle" marquetry) or with wood marquetry, to seat furniture, clocks and barometers, gilt-bronze items including mounted porcelain and hardstones, mantelpieces, mirrors, boxes and pedestals. One highlight of the collection is the major collection of furniture attributed to André-Charles Boulle (1642–1732), perhaps the best-known cabinet-maker ever to have lived.
Remarkable and curious: the quantity and superb quality of 18th-century French furniture in English collections is testament to the British passion for their neighbours' designs, yet the presence of these works is little known in the UK or abroad. by Michael Pick
There are important collections and examples of French furniture within the United Kingdom, with some--such as the Mavrommatis or Safra collections, formed in recent times--only known to the public after their sale. The great contrast between national tastes and styles leads many French collectors of their own heritage to assume that Britain has little to offer to the connoisseur of the 18th-century French ebenistes beyond the more famous examples within the Royal Collections. Few have the opportunity to see these except as illustrations, and this applies to the British rhemselves--but various publications and articles are augmented by regular exhibitions in the Queen's Gallery and open days at Buckingham Palace and Windsor Castle.
For the most part, handbooks issued by English country houses open to the public are remarkably reticent about their holdings of French furniture, or furniture of any provenance. Usually written by architectural historians, the house and family receive the bulk of the attention, followed by paintings and more unusual works of art. Television programming highlights the public fascination with furniture of all kinds, yet most house websites focus on the fun-fait side of their attractions, and are unlikely to entice the furniture lover--not least from France.
During the last 20 years, the most serious London dealers in the best French furniture have gone, and although auctions still provide collectors with opportunities, the perception is that French furniture is solely concentrated in three major collections open to the public: the Wallace Collection, Waddesdon Manor and the Bowes Museum. The Royal Collections are famous, largely by reputation, as are the large holdings of the Victoria and Albert Museum (V&A), not generally known to have much French furniture.
A major reason for the extent of 18th-century French furniture in British collections lies, of course, in the sale of emigre possessions in London following the 1789 Revolution, followed by the sale of seized royal and emigre possessions, once the Terror had taken its toll and the economic downturn created a need for cash. Yet there were British purchasers of French furniture during the 18th century, buying what was fashionable or curious.
Although French purchasers acquired items at the enforced auctions, English dealers and collectors carried off many of the finest lots.
The French author and collector Philippe Jullian noted in 1966 that few of his countrymen collected seriously until: 'Around 1860 the life led by their grandparents before the Industrial Revolution began to appear delightful and so the objects they had used won new affection ... it is impossible to imagine a subject of Louis XVI bringing out furniture dating from Louis XIV. When the Empress Eugenie started to take herself for Marie Antoinette entire suites started to come down from the attic to the salons. The antique dealers are the attics of the newly rich.'
The recent publication of Bric-a-Brac--a brief account of Baron Ferdinand de Rothschild's collecting career culminating in Waddesdon, written in 1897--demonstrates that early in the 19th century, curios or curiosities were a more usual European collecting field for those with the taste and means to satisfy it, including various members of de Rothschild's family well into the 19th century.
In one significant respect we now know that Jullian was wrong. Furniture by Andre-Charles Boulle (1642-1732), his sons and imitators, with its brass, pewter and turtle-shell marquetry marquetry (mär`kətrē), branch of cabinetwork in which a decorative surface of wood or other substance is glued to an object on a single plane. , became highly prized by French collectors in the 18th century. It underwent restoration, re-modelling and copying, notably by Etienne Levasseur (1721-98), with many examples of the popular pedestal plinths found in various collections--such as that formed by the first of the Dukes of Wellington at Stratfield Saye or at Uppark , the house of the connoisseur Sit Harry Fetherstonhaugh (1754-1846), who entertained the Prince Regem and was among those who influenced his taste.
Reproduction Boulle furniture became a standard furnishing item in 19th-century interiors, the genuine article appearing early in Britain. At Boughton, a house consciously modelled on the style of Versailles by Ralph, 1st Duke of Montagn (an ancestor of the current Duke of Buccleuch The title of Duke of Buccleuch was created in the Peerage of Scotland on 20 April 1663 for the Duke of Monmouth, eldest illegitimate son of Charles II of England, who had married Anne Scott, 4th ), there is French furniture he collected while serving as British Ambassador to Louis XIV at various points between 1666 and 1678--notably the small bureau predating Boulle in its form of decoration to the top, but not in its carved gilt wood supports . The piece, attributed to Pierre Gole (c. 1620-84), is thought to have been a gift from Louis XIV, and it may well be the same one delivered to him in 1672. Gole was a Dutchman skilled in marquetry, like so many of his foreign successors as royal ebenistes, first working for Mazarin and later as maitre menuisier en ebene ordinaire du foi (master ebony furniture maker-in-ordinary to the king). He supplied Louis XIV and the Grand Dauphin with furniture, being employed in the Manufacture Royale des Gobelins and evolving elaborately decorated pieces from his more austere designs.
Gole's work was recently represented in the exhibition devoted to Louis XIV held at Versailles, which also included a cabinet thought to be by Gole and Domenico Cucci (1635-1704) from the collection of the Duke of Northumberland The Duke of Northumberland is a title in the peerage of Great Britain.
In Latin, ealdormans of Northumbrians were called Dux when they were vassals of Anglo-Saxon kings of England (Wessex). Bamburgh's lords (holders of Bernicia), Osulf I (d. at Alnwick. This must have opened many French eyes with its display of inlays and decoration of pietra dura, including lapis lazuli, agates and jasper considered to have been made for Versailles' Salon de Mars in 1682. Another example was sold last year and had been in the possession of King Charles X of Sweden before 1735, when it left that collection.
Clearly the Boughton bureau is of great importance in delineating the history of French furniture in Britain, as is the 'State Bed' of the 1st Duke, returned on loan from the V&A, donated in 1916 by the 8th Duke (Fig. 2). Now restored, it is thought to be the work of French upholsterers.
French taste was often transmitted and diluted into English taste. For example, Gerreir Jensen (1680-1715) was a highly skilled Flemish cabinet-maker, making his name in England as an interpreter of Boulle's designs in his own idiom and patronised by the court of William and Mary Noun 1. William and Mary - joint monarchs of England; William III and Mary II and its followers. Similarly, the Frenchman Daniel Marot (c. 1663-1752) was commissioned both in Holland and England by William of Orange William of Orange: see William the Silent; William II, prince of Orange; William III, king of England. (1650-1702) to devise complete room interiors and their furnishing, much as Louis XIV employed his own architects and designers. Jensen may well have been a Huguenot. He was appointed Cabinet Maker in Ordinary to Queen Anne in 1704, and is considered to have brought the latest styles and techniques to furniture making.
Throughout the 18th century, French furniture found favour with sophisticated English tastes, such as the Roentgen roentgen /roent·gen/ (rent´gen) the international unit of x- or ?-radiation; it is the quantity of x- or ?-radiation such that the associated corpuscular emission per 0. cylinder bureau--now in the South Sketch Gallery at Chatsworth with other items from this suite and possibly acquired by Georgiana, Duchess of Devonshire, in Paris. In fact there are earlier French influences seen in elements of the design and decoration at Chatsworth, with Boulle furniture first described there in 1735 and found in the collection acquired over three centuries (a bureau Mazarin having been there since 1745). Subsequent acquisitions followed through the next century.
Equally interesting examples are to be found at Erdigg, Blenheim and Petworth, all acquired at differing dates and in different circumstances, the constant being an appreciation of the craftsmanship. The recent exhibition devoted to the work of Andre-Charles Boulle in Frankfurt-am-Main has underlined the importance of the English collectors and collections.
As indicated, there was 18th-century French interest in the finer products of ebenistes. Royal patronage intended the continuing development of more astounding technical and design feats to stimulate French prestige and the economy. Where the king led, others followed, just as today the French couture industry is actively fostered by the state.
Eighteenth-century French interest in older forms is attested by catalogues of estate sales, such as that of Pierre-Louis Randon de Boisset held in Paris from 27 February to 25 March 1777, when lot 794 (consisting of a pait of Boulle torcheres) sold to an agent named Feuillet on behalf of the Comte de Vaudreuil ( 1740-1817). These were later sold at his sale in Paris on 26 November 1787 as lot 362, underlining the fact that a fashionable friend of Marie Antoinette had a passion for such furniture. The torcheres were later in the London sale of items from 7 Carlton House Terrace Carlton House Terrace refers to a street in the St. James's district of London, England, and in particular to two terraces of white stucco-faced houses on the south side of the street overlooking St. James's Park. belonging to the 12th Earl of Pembroke--at the Christie's sale of 5-12 May 1851 as lot 247--selling to Lord Normanton, a major figure in the 19th-century history of collecting. The Comte de Vaudreuil escaped the Revolutionaries and came to Britain, where he married his second wife in 1795--his cousin, Marie Josephine de Rigaud de Vaudreuil (1774-1859)--and returned to France under Louis XVIII, who appointed him Governor of the Tuileries. Not only was he a collector of various forms of French furniture before the Revolution, but was in London as the greatest phase of British collecting began.
The British taste for French furniture was partly fuelled by the acquisitions of George IV (1762-1830), forming today an important part of the Royal Collections at Buckingham Palace and Windsor Castle. As Prince of Wales Prince of Wales switches places with his double, poor boy Tom Canty. [Am. Lit.: The Prince and the Pauper]
See : Doubles (1762-1820) and Prince Regent (1811-20), he not only bought French furniture and employed French craftsmen when decorating Carlton House, (24) but also collected furniture sold in the wake of the French Revolution--including the cylinder bureau attributed to Riesener, and one of the greatest masterpieces of 18th-century cabinet-making, the Riesener jewel cabinet (Figs. 1 & 6). Their purchase was made at one remove from the misfortunes of the French royal family, as they formed part of the collection of George Watson Taylor (1771-1841), who fell on hard times due to his extravagance--unlike George IV, who already owed the equivalent of some 50m [pounds sterling] in 1795, pleading justification for the sum involved in buying the jewel cabinet.
The background to this and subsequent British 19th-century collecting is only comprehensible in terms of the auctions conducted by the Revolutionaries' regime. The auction at Versailles lasted from 25 August 1793 until 11 August 1794, comprising 17,182 lots, with Fontainebleau from 10 June to 29 October 1794, Marly marl n. A crumbly mixture of clays, calcium and magnesium carbonates, and remnants of shells that is sometimes found under desert sands and used as fertilizer for lime-deficient soils.
tr.v. from October to 25 November 1793 and St Cloud from 29 March to 5 September 1795. Other sales of items seized from royal or emigres' houses followed, ignoring the economic mistake of flooding a restricted market with goods. The jewel cabinet, intended as a museum exhibit before the auctions, was later offered to Napoleon at a reduced figure. He turned it down in favour of something new, clearly for political reasons.
Such dispersals involved agents or dealers; the Prince of Wales famously used his former pastry cook and servant, amongst others. He also consulted Lord Yarmouth (1777-1842), the 3rd Marquis of Hertford (from 1822) and father of Richard Wallace, originators of the Wallace Collection. Wallace lived in Paris, as did John Bowes, originator with his wife of the Bowes Museum. Both the Royal and Wallace Collections are well documented, the catalogues updated with ongoing research and conservation, as are the Rothschild collections formed later in the 19th century at Waddesdon. The catalogues for the 1977 auction of Baron Meyer de Rothschild's (1818-74) collections at Mentmore Towers in Buckinghamshire give insights into the possibilities available to affluent 19th-century collectors. The availability of French furniture was illustrated at Mentmore by the occasional use of lesser commodes as hand basins, the necessary holes cut in the tops for basin and plumbing.
There were other less affluent collectors. John Jones (1800-82), donor of the Jones Collection to the V&A, was a successful military tailor in Waterloo Place, moving in 1865 to Piccadilly with the fruits of his obsession for French furniture, porcelain, paintings and sculpture. His frugality of lifestyle was as singular as his use of Edward Holmes Baldock (1777-1845), advisor and dealer to numerous collectors including George W, William 1V (176S-1837) and Queen Victoria (1819-1901). The 3rd Duke of Northumberland (1795-1847) was a client, buying the Gole-Cucci cabinet mentioned above in 1824 for 2000 [pounds sterling], as was the 5th Duke of Buccleuch (1806-84).
Jones paid substantial sums to Baldock, who also dealt in or had made other inlaid furniture. Some of the pieces are clearly not 18th century in origin, nor even French. Whether they were sold as originals or copies is not clear; the fashion for French antique furniture was such that numerous cabinetmakers made copies, sometimes utilising old components. In Paris firms such as Henri Dasson and Beurdeley also made tine tine (tin) a prong or pointed projection on an implement, as on a fork.
When looking for a master in detailed design on furniture, take a look back at the marquetry work of Andres Charles Boulle, a French designer who is heralded as one of the top, if not the top designer in the field of marquetry at his time. He has even had a style of decorative inlay named after him (Boulle). For Boulle, it wasn’t so much that he was the first to come up with artistic ideas to inlay furniture, but it was that he was so intricately detailed in the designs that he inlaid and carved into modern furniture that he was well known. Though he was headquartered primarily in Paris, France, Boulle was called all over the country to utilize his skill in placing a veneer on furniture in a variety of materials, including tortoiseshell, pewter and brass. Early on he spent a lot of time working at Versailles where he created the walls, the wood mosaic, paneling and other carved furniture such as the Commode with heavy etching, carving and ornate designs. Born in 1942, Andres Charles Boulle was a master cabinetmaker by age 24 in 1666; only six years later at the age of 30, Boulle was lodging at the Palais du Louvre with the king’s blessing and he was also a personal designer to Louis XIV, or the King of France creating cabinets, sculptures and other modern artwork of the times. He produced furniture as well as gilded pieces using gold and gilt bronze chandeliers, lights, mounts and other furniture. Despite his great creativity, he was a poor businessman and was even occasion ordered arrested for various credit issues. Despite this, his unique skill in marquetry that allowed him to create unique modern furniture covered with a fanciful inlay of ivory or other material that helped create a beautiful picture or ornamentation. Breuer, who was still influenced by the late Renaissance ornamented with an emphasis of what is now considered a Baroque stlye, ornamentation in bronze and ebony. One of Boulle’s most significant pieces, widely known by many in the furniture design world is the Queen Anne chair, a wooden carved chair with a soft cushion. These chairs have carved shell or scroll motifs in different areas of the chair. Part of the Queen Anne style, its design was heavily influenced by Andre Charles Boulle who helped create the Baroque or Rococo style in France. This influence didn’t stay long as Oriental influences were coming in that were streamling and making furniture more modern. Andres Charles Boulle has examples of his work around the world, including some incredibly famous places such as Versailles, Fontainebleau, the Louvre, Windsor Castle among others. Boulle set the trend for veneers using ebody and tortoiseshell, so much so that many fakes were created of the design. No matter how cheap it was, it was still confused for the real inlay. As Boulle’s skill increased be began adding other elements to make the work his own such as a gold leaf or other ornamented pieces such as feet, trims and various ornaments to help protect and to decorate further. Very few people since have been able to accurately replicate the work of this great French artist and furniture designer. His contemporary, yet creative designs for living room, bedroom and other furniture were unmatched during his time, with few having the skill to compete. Andres Charle Boulle was not only a great furniture designer, but he passed the skill onto his children who were also noted as great cabinetmakers and continued on the family design name.
Charles Cressent (1685-1768) is considered to be one of the best decorative artists of the 18th Century. Born to Francois Cressent, a sculptor du roi and the grandson of Charles Cressent, a furniture maker and sculptor; it would make sense that he would continue in their footsteps as a French furniture maker, sculptor and fondeur-ciseleur of the late Régence and early Rococo periods. In the beginning of his career his works reflected his extensive training by André Charles Boulle, in the school of Boulle. Later, as he developed as an artist, his pieces would reveal his own unique and original style. This style, rich with line, detail and ornamentation, he is best known for his highly sculptural gilt mounts that ornamented his furniture. This is expressed through female figures placed at the corners of tables as well as bronze mounts said to rival that of one of his contemporaries, Jacques Caffieri, master of the Rococo style. Executed with a sharpness of finish with an elegance and strength of outline, he produced furniture and clocks that were rich in color and intricate detailing. Gilt handles, representing Chinese dragons designed for his bathroom at the Hertford House, was one of his most elaborate. He boasted of producing the finest art pieces suitable to be placed in the finest of settings. In order to supervise production and guarantee the quality of his mounts, he broke the strict rules of the French guild system and employed both master casters and gilders in his workshop. He was prosecuted by the guild for this practice. Noted for his confidence in his artistic talents, he maintained careful records of the sale of his works published in three catalogues allowing for ease of identification and location. Because of this, much of his work has survived and is still able to be viewed and enjoyed until today. One of his best known pieces is the bust of Louis, the son of Philip ll, Duke of Orléans whom he was also commissioned to make furniture for. The famous medailier, considered an outstanding example of 18th century French furniture is on display at the Bibliotèque Nationale. Additional original pieces of his work can be viewed at the Louvre and the Wallace Collection, a world famous museum in London specializing in display of fine and decorative art from the 15th to the 19th century. His style of ornamentation included extensive use of marquetry; inlaid veneers of tortoiseshell, satinwood and amaranth woods fitted together to form an intricate design. This use of color and exuberance typified the Régence and early Rococo style.
In the early 1700s, Baroque accents in design were still heavily in vogue as was the Rococo influencein visual arts and modern design. It was during the Renaissance that these designs gave way and were heavily influenced by ancient Roman and Greece designs, but was in the early 1800s that modern design began to pull away from the Baroque influence into a more neoclassical influence from a more traditional Rome and Greece that didn’t emphasize the romantic elements of church and religion which inspired an entire design concept. It was during this time that the ebeniste became popular in France. Ebeniste means cabinet-maker in French, but truly goes beyond the simplicity of a cabinet-maker. While early on in the 1700s baroque was popular, it became clear as time passed that a simpler, cleaner look was influencing design despite the ostentatious designs of King Louis XVI who later on in life simplified his designs, but still loved the embellishments of marquetry created by the proper ebeniste. One popular ebenist and furniture designer was Jean Henri Riesener, born July 4, 1734 in Gladbeck, Westphalia, Germany before moving to France later on in life to begin his modern furniture design career. After marrying the widow of the man he apprenticed with, he became master ebeniste before working for the king where he eventually rose in the ranks to be known as the “greatest Parisian ebeniste of the Louis XVI time period.” His work became significant in what is now known as the Louis XVI style, a mix of Baroque and Rococo influence with the beginnings of Neo-classical design beginning to influence modern interior and furniture design. Louis XVI was married to Marie Antoinnette who loved Riesener’s marquetry work on her cabinets and regularly had him make her creations. Riesener was skilled in may techniques from parquetry to trelliswork to gilt-bronze mounts and he preferred to hide the screwhesads on his work. Riesener made many different items from cabinets to desks to secretaries to commodes with fancy inlay for the new King and Queen and was in high demand until he died in poverty. His pieces for Royalty and for the upper-elite may have made him wealthy. His designs were innovative with mechanical fittings that raised or lowered the table or desk. Despite surviving the French revolution by removing fancy emblems from his furniture design, Riesener bought back many of his grand creations in hopes it would become vogue again, but eventually they didn’t and he finished his life in obscurity despite his heavy influences on the new neo-classical furniture design.
Born in Gladbeck, Westphalia, in 1734, Jean-Henri Riesener moved to Paris at an early age and by 1754 was apprenticed to Jean-Francois Oeben at the Arsenal. Riesener took over the workshop in 1765 and ran it on behalf of Oeben's widow until attaining his mastery in 1768, at which time, having married Oeben's widow, he took over the quarters at the Arsenal. In June 1774, Gilles Joubert formally relinquished his office of ébéniste de Roi to Riesener. From 1774 to 1784, Riesener supplied more than 938,000 livres worth of furniture to the Garde Meuble Royal.
He is the son of Henry Robert Somers Fitzroy de Vere Somerset and Bettine Violet Malcolm and was educated at Eton College. He and his family are descendants in the male line from the House of Plantagenet. The Duke of Beaufort Born 23 February 1928(1928-02-23) He was commissioned into the Coldstream Guards on 6 September 1946 as a Second Lieutenant. He was promoted to Lieutenant on 1 January 1949. He held the office of Hereditary Keeper of Raglan Castle, was President of the British Horse Society between 1988 and 1990 and chairman of Marlborough Fine Art. He ranked 581st in the Sunday Times Rich List 2008, with an estimated wealth of £135m in land.
Monday, 1 May 1995
OBITUARY : Caroline Beaufort The estate of Badminton after the Second World War was a world apart, where time and tradition had stood still for many years. It was best known to the outside world for the famous Horse Trials, attended each year by the monarch. Its owners, the old Duke and Duchess of Beaufort, were devoted to the chase and to the Royal Family. On hearing that their future heir was marrying, they did not ask: "Is she nice?" but "Does she hunt?" David Somerset married Lady Caroline Thynne at St Peter's, Eaton Square, in July 1950, in the presence of King George VI, Queen Elizabeth and Princess Margaret. Queen Mary, the Duchess of Beaufort's aunt, who had spent the war years - memorably - at Badminton, attended the reception at "Chips" Channon's house in Belgrave Square. David Somerset's father, Robert, a first cousin once removed of the 10th Duke, was drowned in 1965. David Somerset, dapper, handsome and well-dressed, the chairman of Marlborough Fine Art, then became heir. Caroline Thynne was the only daughter of the sixth Marquess of Bath, the owner of Longleat, in Wiltshire, and a pioneer of the stately home industry ("We Have Seen the Lions of Longleat"), and his wife Daphne, later known (as Daphne Fielding) for her many books, such as The Duchess of Jermyn Street. Caroline's early years were spent at Longleat, where she was somehow not overwhelmed by a host of elderly Thynne aunts. While many of the Thynnes were (and are) arguably eccentric, Lady Caroline was surprisingly normal, wholly straightforward, and retained a refreshing innocence throughout life. As a young couple, the Somersets were taken under the wing of the childless Duke and Duchess of Beaufort, with whom they lived at Badminton. The Duke was known as "Master" - he was the Master of the Horse to the Queen as well as Master of the Beaufort Hunt. "Obviously," he once declared, "the hunting of the fox has been my chief concern." There was no special reason to expect that this arrangement would work so well, for the Somersets had wider and more cultural interests than their elders, yet the four were united by a strong mutual respect, love of Badminton and of the countryside. As their young family grew, the Somersets moved to a house nearby, only returning to Badminton when "Master" died in 1984. The 11th Duke took his place as Master of the Beaufort, and there occurred one of the best runs in years, causing the new Duchess to exclaim: "Master has inhabited the fox!" The old Duke was laid to rest under a mighty edifice to protect his remains from ill-intentioned hunt saboteurs. The new Duchess set about her role as mistress of the great house with enormous good- humour. Badminton was in terrible disrepair, with buckets to catch the incoming water. She presided over the house's restoration, created a beautiful garden, planted thousands of new trees in the park; each year they undertook at least one major repair. Where her mother-in-law, Mary Beaufort, who lived on in the house till 1987, had occasionally taken up a post in one of the state rooms to answer questions from the tourists, suitably cordoned behind ropes, Caroline Beaufort's approach was very different. There can have been few more generous guides to a stately home. Welcoming parties of visitors (by appointment), the Duchess would announce: "Chairs. Chairs are for sitting on, so sit on all of them, and take as many photographs as you like." Visitors roamed freely upstairs, even visiting her bedroom (where Queen Mary had resided in the war), and behaved better than had they been detained behind the traditional ropes. The Duchess's good-humour and charm were infectious. She was also intrepid. With her husband she would depart for two months at a time to China, the Himalayas, Zimbabwe or the Amazon. Her idea of travel was "a quick dip" in waters infested with piranha or camping near lions. Active with charities - she supported 76 charities on a regular basis - she once abseiled from the outside wall of the Gloucestershire Royal Hospital to raise money for National Meningitis Awareness Week. This spring she received an honorary LLD for her charitable work from Bristol University. The Beauforts had three sons and a daughter, Lady Anne Somerset, biographer of Elizabeth I. When cancer of the liver was diagnosed last summer, the Duchess was as open as ever. In a newspaper interview she spoke of her fate, her remaining hopes and disappointments and declared the disease "a bloody bore". She continued: "If I thought it would do any good I would scream like a stuck pig, but instead I will have to carry on as normal."
Caroline Jane Thynne: born 28 August 1928; married 1950 David Somerset (succeeded 1984 as 11th Duke of Beaufort; three sons, one daughter); died Badminton 22 April 1995.
Brian Higham: Badminton's long-serving stud groom It is the end of an era at the Duke of Beaufort’s Badminton Estate. For after half a century of work, the stable manager Brian Higham is hanging up his boots and retiring at the age of 77. Yet although he landed up working in the stable yard of one of Britain’s most iconic estates and a place immortalised forever in the adrenalin-filled sport of Eventing he had to learn his trade the hard way. For his family was not a wealthy one and although he grew up in the countryside around the beautiful Yorkshire village of Snainton a horse of his own was not possible. His father was talented sculptor and artist who spent time in the services and it was just through working on the farms Brian learnt his trade. “As a boy I was always keen to get a ride, and when they were getting the sugar beet out of the fields I would ride a carthorse,” he says, “and I used to beg rides to go hunting.” But working with horses is what he always wanted to do and Badminton was his first proper horse job. He arrived here in 1959 as second man or in modern terms deputy and remained as such until 1966 when he took over the reins as stud groom or yard manager as it is known today. And during this time he as seen some changes. He spent 25 years working with the 10th Duke, “which I was very proud of,” he says, “as he was a very famous man,” and then 26 working for the present. “Today would not compare with the grandeur of that era,” he says, “manners have changed worldwide, there is a casualness now. You could set your clock by the old Duke if he said he was going to ride at 10 he did not five past or ten to. He would apologise if he were early. Whereas a lot of people now do not care if they are late, they should care, but they don’t.” It is a life that his brought him the experience of mixing with people from all walks of life. He lists the Eventing greats, such as Sheila Wilcox, Mary King and Richard Walker as personal friends and admits to receiving Christmas cards and conversing regularly with Prince Charles, who he says: “Likes my homemade sloe gin which I give him every Christmas.” And it has taken him all around the country and the world too as he has become a well-respected judge, judging at all the top shows. On the day after I met him he was jetting over to America to do some judging there. Not bad for a man in his eighth decade. But when I suggest that he perhaps should consider himself a southerner as he has lived in the Cotswolds for over 50 years he is emphatic in his response. “No,” he says, “I am Yorkshire born and bred and very proud of that.” But that said he does love the area saying: “I have lived like a millionaire here,” and when he does have a free evening there is nothing he likes more than a quiet meal at The George in Nailsworth with his wife, Sherry. So does he have any regrets on the path he has taken? “I don’t think you can have regrets, I mean I have a great life, so many don’t have that,” he says. “But I would have liked to have trained. I have had a bit of success with the ones I did and I think I would have been able to do that.” For despite being heavily involved in the Eventing and showing world he remains a national hunt man and over the years owned several successful pointers. But the last few years have not been easy. Two years ago he was diagnosed with non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma and chemo and radiation followed. Thankfully he has now been given the all clear but this made him re-evaluate his life. “It would have been easy just to carry on but the health thing made my mind up really,” he says, “If things can’t be done at the standards you would like then...” Leaving the obvious unspoken. He is without doubt a perfectionist and one that likes to do a job properly. So with retirement beckoning he can surely take things more easily - or maybe not as his plans reveal. “Well I walk every morning and I like to ride and I will probably go to Yorkshire more. There will also be more time to travel. My wife is American and has a house in South Carolina so who knows I may go out there for a couple of weeks or a month or two.” “I have also got a couple of pointers in training,” he adds and he does not rule out buying and selling the odd horse either. And he will remain within sight of the stables at his estate cottage. “The duke says I have a home for life here,” he says “and I will still be able to keep the odd horse or two on the yard.” But the question then arises, ‘will he actually be able to retire when he will still maintain such close links to the place? Will he not be tempted to give his opinion if he feels they need it?’ After all it was his life for 50 years. “I don’t think that would be fair on my successor, he says, “as she will want to do things her way, but my door will always be open if she needs advice.” And there is no doubt it will not only be her seeking him out, for his door will surely remain a beacon for his numerous friends wanting to visit.
BRIAN HIGHAM I was born in the Yorkshire village of Snainton in the Vale of Pickering. I came to Badminton in 1959 and was stud groom at Badminton Stables from 1966 to 2010. You can imagine that during that time, I saw many changes! Although I no longer hunt myself (I don’t want to fall off any more!), I hack regularly around the estate either with my wife Sherry or alone. I thoroughly enjoy it and it helps to keep me fit and healthy – as does my daily 2 mile walk! I have been married to Sherry for over 15 years, after meeting by chance when she visited from America to buy a horse. The rest, as they say, is history! We both love the lifestyle we have – I feel we live like millionaires in this beautiful place! Our cottage is near the stable yard, and I have lived there since I first came to Badminton all those years ago. One of the highlights of my year during my time at the yard, was Badminton Horse Trials at the beginning of May. The stables became a frenzy of activity as we undertook an enormous spring clean to prepare 80 to 100 stables for the world’s top event horses to come and stay. During the summer, I do a lot of show judging (and have done for many years) and am one of Sport Horse Breeding of Great Britain’s longest serving judges. In the past, it was always a nice break from the hunting season at Badminton and I still look forward to it each year. As well as judging, people often come to me for my opinion on their horse’s health and fitness, or when buying and selling. I am not a vet but do have many years of experience and am happy to advise people, where I can. I also get asked for my opinion on the design of new yards, based on my experience at Badminton. I enjoy passing on my knowledge and I believe you never stop learning, even at my age! I retired as Stud Groom to Badminton Stables in 2010 after 50 years of service!
How the hunt shot Labour's fox: Although hunting was banned three years ago the sport is MORE popular than ever
By Sue Reid
Cowering down a rabbit hole deep in the English countryside at 11 o'clock last Thursday morning, a year-old fox has a few seconds to live.
An inch in front of the fox's furry face, blocking all chance of escape, is Tozy the terrier with his razor-sharp teeth. Three feet above, in the open air, two men from the local hunt are digging down towards him. Soon it will be over.
Worse off? Although Labour banned fox hunting in 2005 more foxes are being killed because hunters now have to shoot them
As the men's spades crash into the warren to reach the terrified creature, Tozy's owner takes a 3.2 Taurus pistol from his pocket and fires a shot into the the fox's forehead, killing it instantly.
After all, the terrier man, Richard, has a job to do.
For weeks, the young male fox has been causing mayhem at a farm four miles from Swindon, in Wiltshire. He has been doing what foxes like doing best: killing young pheasants, often just for fun. 'Before the ban on hunting in 2005, this fox would have stood a chance,' says Mark Hill, a 50-year-old land agent and Master of the flourishing Vale of the White Horse Hunt, which rides over a 20-mile area of the Cotswolds which includes the farm. 'If we had hunted him with hounds, he might well have got away. It was the old, the sick and the injured foxes that we used to catch then. Now that we have to shoot them, we think more foxes are being eliminated. The fox has fared the worst out of this ban.'
It is hard to disagree. For, astonishingly, today - three years after New Labour banned hunting to hounds - the hunts are flourishing. Last week, one of the country's most ardent fox hunters, former Daily Telegraph editor and Old Etonian Charles Moore, sang the praises of his favourite sport. In the right-leaning Spectator magazine, he revealed that on a recent autumn day he and 65 other followers on horseback had ridden with his local hunt, and that hunting was now more popular than ever. Last Boxing Day, a traditional high day in the hunting calendar, a record number of 300,000 people on horses, in cars and on foot turned out to watch 314 fox, deer and stag hunts in action in Britain. And, in another unexpected triumph for the huntsmen, there are now three more hunts operating than there were before the ban was pushed through Parliament by Tony Blair.
Under present hunting laws, the hounds can only be used to follow a scent, but not to kill a fox. They pick up a trail laid across the land by hunt workers dragging a piece of cloth laced with fox's urine. If the hounds come across a real fox by chance, as they are apt to do, they must be called off the chase by the huntsmen. Yet, despite this strange set of affairs, hunts are thriving. As Lord Mancroft, the Conservative peer and former Master of the Vale of the White Horse Hunt (VWH), said in a recent article in Hunting Magazine: 'We expected our world to be turned upside down - hunts to fail, hounds to be put down, and hunt staff to lose their jobs. In fact, the reverse is more accurate.
'Hunting is enjoying a renaissance, with many packs recruiting new followers in unprecedented numbers. Some hunts even have waiting lists as never before. Everybody knows the truth and few pretend otherwise. The hunting ban is a national farce, and a massive political failure.' So what is the truth about the 300-year-old sport? We visited two of the 174 fox hunts in England and Wales - The Duke of Beaufort's Hunt, which covers an enormous 500-square-mile tract of the countryside from Bath in the south to Cirencester in the north, and the smaller VWH based on the border between Wiltshire and Gloucestershire.
We spoke to those who run the hunts, those who work for them, and the people who follow them - either on horses, on foot, or in cars.
Captain Ian Farquhar, 62, a farmer and landowner, has been Master of The Beaufort since 1985, as was his father before him. It is the hunt which Prince Charles and Princes Harry and William used to enjoy following before the ban.
Class war? Captain Ian Farquhar leads the Beaufort Hunt, he thinks the ban was a class war and says the sport is really egalitarian
Captain Farquhar has broken almost every bone in his body - bar his neck - out hunting. He says: 'The fight to get a hunting ban was a class war, and yet hunting is one of the few sports that is really egalitarian, involving people from every age group, every social background, and every income bracket.'
So what kind of people are behind this hunting renaissance? This week, out hunting I saw four state school children (their farm worker families had decided that following hounds astride ponies in the autumn sunshine was preferable to a day behind a desk at the local comprehensive). There was also a farmer called Jo with his wife (who milked the cows before they set off at dawn), and a girl from a Cirencester supermarket who told her boss she had the sniffles.
Watching from the sidelines, as followers in cars, were two retired herdsmen and a family from Swindon who were on benefits. One, a teenage boy, had a hood over his head, but still called out 'Good morning' to Captain Farquhar as he passed by in the back of a shabby 4x4 that would have looked more at home on a council estate.
'Our oldest mounted follower is 87 and has a military background,' says Farquhar. 'We have a bricklayer, shopkeepers, a fencer and some housewives. During the week it is the locals who come - at the weekends it can be 200 from all over the country.
Recently, a lady of a great age who was still riding side-saddle was persuaded to give up hunting with us on the advice of her family and her doctors. She couldn't keep up very well towards the end, but no one minded.'
Meanwhile, over at the VFH, it is much the same story. John Manners-Bell, 39, runs a market research company in the village of Brinkworth, Wiltshire. His wife is a local vet and he has two children, aged six and two.
He moved to the village two years ago from Cambridgeshire, and began to learn how to ride. On Wednesday, he went hunting in the morning, and soon after noon he was back at his desk. He has two horses, Tabitha and Holly, which he keeps at a local stable.
'I love hunting,' he says. 'I ride out with the hounds at least once a week. I don't take much notice of what the hounds are doing up at the front. I can't tell you if they have ever started to chase a fox and then been stopped by the huntsmen.
'I spend all my time concentrating on staying on the back of my horse,' he adds with a grin.
But what of the foxes themselves? Every huntsman and farmer will tell you that they are wily characters. They are omnivores and opportunists. They will eat almost anything. They can carry away a baby lamb with ease. One fox might kill 70 pheasants in a night, just for the joy of it.
Once they get the bloodlust, there is no stopping them. A fox will massacre a pen of hens yet take just one to eat. A vixen will kill a lamb and carry only the liver and the heart back to her cubs. Wha's more, the fox has no predator, apart from man.
In the year before the ban, the Beaufort Hunt's hounds killed 140 foxes. Today no one knows how many are being shot, gassed, or even snared on the 1,500 farms and smallholdings which the hunt covers. 'We suspect it is far more than it ever was,' says Captain Farquhar, his face looking grim.
And worse for the fox, research from the pro-hunting lobby has shown that for each one killed by a shotgun or rifle, another one is left horribly injured. He faces a long and lingering death.
Foxes are nimble and tend to move just as a shot is taken. They are notoriously difficult to shoot cleanly, which is why some farmers and gamekeepers have turned to more efficient ways of killing - gassing or snaring.
The Countryside Alliance, the major lobby group which fought furiously against the introduction of the ban - says that hundreds of foxes are now being exterminated as vermin, rather like rats.
Spokesman Tim Bonner said this week: 'The fox is being eliminated. It is impossible to say how many have been killed since the ban, but we believe it is more than when the fox was professionally hunted. A third of hunts say they are counting fewer foxes than in 2004.'
And far more pregnant vixens are being killed, too. When a marksman takes aim or a snare is set, it is almost impossible to tell if the victim is an expectant female.
Yet, in one of nature's strange quirks, a vixen gives off no scent when she is pregnant. So, ironically, pregnant females were completely safe from the hunts as the hounds could not follow her trail.
But what of the law which brought in the ban? According to the Countryside Alliance, now campaigning for a repeal of the 2005 Hunting Act, it is an utterly confusing piece of legislation.
One such example is that it is perfectly legal to send a terrier underground to root out a fox - and then for a VWH hunt worker like Richard to shoot it, if the fox is killing a game bird, such as a pheasant or partridge.
However, if the fox has been slaughtering lambs or piglets - which it loves to do - then it is illegal to use the same methods.
In a further oddity, the huntsmen can go out with two dogs to 'flush out' a fox from a rabbit hole, and then kill it with a gun. However, if he has three dogs it is against the law. And, even more strangely, a pack of hounds can hunt a fox if a bird of prey, such as a Golden Eagle, is then used to kill it.
Unsurprisingly, a national survey undertaken by Opinion Research two years ago found that fewer than three in ten adults in this country believe that the Hunting Act is working.
The police say it is almost impossible to enforce anyway (they have other, more pressing priorities, and cannot watch every mile covered by every hunt), while even a crown court judge, overturning the first ever conviction of a huntsman, observed that the law was 'far from simple to interpret or apply'.
Tony Wright, a Devon huntsman, had originally been found guilty of chasing two foxes across Exmoor with two hounds. The case was brought by the League Against Cruel Sports, which argued that he had allowed 'a prolonged period' of pursuit - which is also illegal.
Mr Wright, 52, said he was using the 'two dog' exemption in the Hunting Act, and thought he was obeying the rules. The case is now going to appeal in the High Court, after thousands of hours of lawyers' time and huge costs on all sides.
If the Government's intention was to spare the fox an inhumane death, while simultaneously eroding support for what it saw as a pursuit reserved for the upper classes, then it has signally failed.
The attention the ban has brought to the sport seems to have kindled an interest in it from people who might otherwise have remained uninterested. As for the foxes, ask the pro-hunt lobby, how can gassing, snaring and wildly inaccurate shooting of ever-increasing numbers be deemed as humane?
So what of the future? A lot depends on the result of the next election. David Cameron, who has hunted to hounds, says he will allow a free vote on the issue in Parliament. 'If the vote went through, there would be a Government Bill to get rid of it. I mean, in my own view, the ban is not working. It's a farce really,' he pronounced recently.
No one believes that more than the 50 men, women and child riders galloping behind the Beaufort Hunt hounds on Thursday morning. As the pack, with their green-coated Master and huntsmen, followed the scent of a piece of urine-soaked rag across the beautiful countryside, I saw a fox watching them.
They didn't see him. But he seemed to have a cocky stance. And I fancy that I saw a grin on his face.
Badminton Horse Trials - The Facts & Figures
It was the 10th Duke of Beaufort - Master - whose idea it was to hold an event in his Gloucestershire park in order that British riders could train for future international events. The first event was held in 1949. When Golden Willow won the first Badminton in 1949, there were 22 starters from two countries, Britain and Ireland. . Since then Great Britain has won three team golds and two individual gold medals in the Olympics; four team golds and four individual gold medals in the World Championships, and no fewer than 20 team golds and 17 individual gold medals in the European Championships. For the first 10 years, the dressage and show-jumping arenas were sited on the old cricket ground in front of Badminton House. Torrential rain in 1959 turned the park into a sea of mud and the arenas and tradestands were moved to the present site. The very first European Championships were staged at Badminton in 1953. The winner was Major Laurence Rook on Starlight XV. The Trials were first televised in 1956. in 2007 there were some 16 cameras covering the event for the Outside Broadcasts Unit of the BBC. In 1955, the Trials were moved to Windsor for one year at the invitation of The Queen, to hold the 2nd European Championships. In 1956, the Steeplechase course was moved from the Didmarton point-to-point course to the site at The Slaits, where it stayed until discontinued in 2006. In 1959 it was decided to run the Trials in two sections - The Great and Little Badminton. This was due to the popularity of the sport and the number of entries. This was abandoned after the 1965 competition, since when there have always been two days of dressage. In 1961, Messrs. Whitbread took over the sponsorship of the Badminton Horse Trials and this continued until 1991, one of the longest sponsorships for any sport. Bad weather has forced the cancellation of the Trials on three occasions - in 1966, 1975 and 1987. The terrible weather of 1962/63 which continued into the spring, forced Badminton to down-grade to a one day event. Foot and Mouth disease caused the cancellation of the 2001 Event.
Paul Fussell was born in Pasadena, California. After service with the 103rd Infantry Division in France and Germany (Bronze Star, Purple Heart), Fussell attended Pomona College and Harvard University.
Fussell's career as a university teacher began in 1951 at Connecticut College. He has taught at Rutgers University where, from 1976-83 he was John DeWitt Professor of English Literature, and at the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia, where, from 1983-1993, he held the post of Donald T. Regan Professor of English Literature. At present, Paul Fussell is Donald T. Regan Professor Emeritus of English Literature, University of Pennsylvania.
It was Paul Fussell's passion for Eighteenth-Century literature that fired his early career. His first books are entitled: Theory of Prosody in Eighteenth-Century England, Poetic Meter and Form, The Rhetorical World of Augustan Humanism: Ethics and Imagery from Swift to Burke, and, Samuel Johnson and The Life of Writing.
The second half of Fussell's career has been devoted to Twentieth-Century social and cultural history. Describing the transition, Fussell says in a recent interview: "I learned [to turn experience toward intellect and away from emotion through] my long immersion in Eighteenth-Century literature, where the urge is constantly outward from oneself; that is, not trying to undertake deep voyages into the self, but rather, to escape the self, look out at society, see what's going on, and then comment on it. Irony is a great help there, to protect oneself from the self-regarding emotion, which has always been an enemy of mine from the start."
It was during those very productive years from the mid 1970s onward that Fussell wrote the books that made him famous. The Great War and Modern Memory (1976) was the first in an impressive list of publications dealing with war and Twentieth-Century culture (Thank God for the Atom Bomb, and Other Essays, Wartime: Understanding and Behavior in the Second World War, and Doing Battle: The Making of a Skeptic). The Great War and Modern Memory moreover, was awarded the National Book Award in Arts and Letters and the Ralph Waldo Emerson Award of Phi Beta Kappa. Other books by Paul Fussell include Abroad: British Literary Travelling Between the Wars, The Boy Scout Handbook and Other Observations, Class: A Guide through the American Status System, and Bad, or The Dumbing of America.
Since 1993, Fussell devotes his time to writing and to a busy lecturing career. In this country, Fussell has been featured recently on the CBC's "Writers and Company," "Ideas," as well as on the CBC's Harbourfront broadcasts. He and his wife, Harriette Behringer Fussell, live in Philadelphia.
In Class Paul Fussell explodes the sacred American myth of social equality with eagle-eyed irreverence and iconoclastic wit. This bestselling, superbly researched, exquisitely observed guide to the signs, symbols, and customs of the American class system is always outrageously on the mark as Fussell shows us how our status is revealed by everything we do, say, and own. He describes the houses, objects, artifacts, speech, clothing styles, and intellectual proclivities of American classes from the top to the bottom and everybody -- you’ll surely recognize yourself -- in between. Class is guaranteed to amuse and infuriate, whether your class is so high it’s out of sight (literally) or you are, alas, a sinking victim of prole drift.
Top Out of Sight - Billionaires and multi-millionaires. The people so wealthy they can afford exclusive levels of privacy. We never hear about them because they don't want us to. Upper Class - Millionaires, inherited wealth. Those who don't have to work. They refer to tuxes as "dinner jackets."
Upper Middle - Wealthy surgeons and lawyers, etc. Professionals who couldn't be described as middle class. I suspect this is the class to which I, an engineer, am supposed to aspire.
Middle Class - The great American majority, sort of.
High Proletarian (or "prole") - Skilled workers but manual labor. Electricians, plumbers, etc. Probably not familiar with the term "proletarian."
Middle Prole - Unskilled manual labor. Waitresses, painters. (In other words, my mom and dad!)
Low Prole - Non-skilled of a lower level than mid prole. I suspect these people ask "Would you like fries with that, sir?" as a career.
Destitute - Working and non-working poor.
Bottom Out of Sight - Street people, the most destitute in society. "Out of sight" because they have no voice, influence or voter impact. (They don't vote.)
From Class: A Guide Through the American Status System by Paul Fussell. A Touchy Subject Although most Americans sense that they live within an extremely complicated system of social classes and suspect that much of what is thought and done here is prompted by considerations of status, the subject has remained murky. And always touchy. You can outrage people today simply by mentioning social class, very much the way, sipping tea among the aspidistras a century ago, you could silence a party by adverting too openly to sex. When, recently, asked what I am writing, I have answered, "A book about social class in America," people tend first to straighten their ties and sneak a glance at their cuffs to see how far fraying has advanced there. Then, a few minutes later, they silently get up and walk away. It is not just that I am feared as a class spy. It is as if I had said, "I am working on a book urging the beating to death of baby whales using the dead bodies of baby seals." Since I have been writing this book I have experienced many times the awful truth of R.H. Tawney's perception, in his book Equality (1931): "The word 'class' is fraught with unpleasing associations, so that to linger upon it is apt to be interpreted as the symptom of a perverted mind and a jaundiced spirit." Especially in America, where the idea of class is notably embarrassing. In his book Inequality in an Age of Decline (1980), the sociologist Paul Blumberg goes so far as to call it "America's forbidden thought." Indeed, if people often blow their tops if the subject is even broached. One woman, asked by a couple of interviewers if she thought there were social classes in this country, answered: "It's the dirtiest thing I've ever head of!" And a man, asked the same question, got so angry that he blurted out, "Social class should be exterminated." Actually, you reveal a great deal about your social class by the amount of annoyance or fury you feel when the subject is brought up. A tendency to get very anxious suggests that you are middle class and nervous about slipping down a rung or two. On the other hand, upper-class people love to topic to come up: the more attention paid to the matter the better off they seem to be. Proletarians generally don't mind discussions of the subject because they know that can do little to alter their class identity. Thus the whole class matter is likely to seem like a joke to them - the upper classes fatuous in their empty aristocratic pretentiousness, the middles loathsome in their anxious gentility. It is the middle class that is highly class-sensitive, and sometimes class-scared to death. A representative of that class left his mark on a library copy of Russell Lynes's The Tastemakers (1954). Next to a passage patronizing the insecure decorating taste of the middle class and satirically contrasting its artistic behavior to that of some more sophisticated classes, this offended reader scrawled, in large capitals, "BULL SHIT!" A hopelessly middle-class man (not a woman, surely?) if I ever saw one. If you reveal your class by your outrage at the very topic, you reveal it also by the way that you define the thing that's outraging you. At the bottom, people tend to believe that class is defined by the amount of money you have. In the middle, people grant that money has something to do with it, but think education and the kind of work you do almost equally important. Nearer the top, people perceive that taste, values, ideas, style, and behavior are indispensable criteria of class, regardless of money or occupation or education. One woman interview by Studs Terkel for Division Street: America (1967) clearly revealed her class as middle both by her uneasiness about the subject's being introduced and by her instinctive recourse to occupation as the essential class criterion. "We have right on this street almost every class," she said. "But I shouldn't say class," she went on, "because we don't live in a nation of classes." Then, the occupational criterion: "But we have janitors living on the street, we have doctors, we have businessmen, CPAs." Being told that there are no social classes in the place where the interviewee lives is an old experience for sociologists. " 'We don't have classes in our town' almost invariably is the first remark recorded by the investigator," reports Leonard Reissman, author of Class in American Life (1959). "Once that has been uttered and is out of the way, the class divisions in the town can be recorded with what seems to be an amazing degree of agreement among the good citizens of the community." The novelist John O'Hara made a whole career out of probing into this touchy subject, to which he was astonishingly sensitive. While still a boy, he was noticing that in the Pennsylvania town where he grew up, "older people do not treat others as equals." Class distinctions in America are so complicated and subtle that foreign visitors often miss the nuances and sometimes even the existence of a class structure. So powerful is the "fable of equality," as Frances Trollope called it when she toured America in 1832, so embarrassed is the government to confront the subject - in the thousands of measurements pouring from its bureaus, social class is not officially recognized - that it's easy for visitors not to notice the way the class system works. A case in point is the experience of Walter Allen, the British novelist and literary critic. Before he came over here to teach at a college in the 1950's, he imagined that "class scarcely existed in America, except, perhaps, as divisions between ethnic groups or successive waves of immigrants." But living a while in Grand Rapids opened his eyes: there he learned of the snob power of New England and the pliability of the locals to the long-wielded moral and cultural authority of the old families. Some Americans viewed with satisfaction the failure of the 1970's TV series Beacon Hill, a drama of high society modeled on the British Upstairs, Downstairs, comforting themselves with the belief that this venture came to grief because there is no class system here to sustain interest in it. But they were mistaken. Beacon Hill failed to engage American viewers because it focused on perhaps the least interesting place in the indigenous class structure, the quasi-aristocratic upper class. Such a dramatization might have done better if it had dealt with places where everyone recognizes interesting class collisions occur - the place where the upper-middle class meets the middle and resists its attempted incursions upward, or where the middle class does the same to the classes just below it. If foreigners often fall for the official propaganda of social equality, the locals tend to know what's what, even if they feel some uneasiness talking about it. When the acute black from the South asserts of an ambitious friend that "Joe can't class with the big folks," we feel in the presence of someone who's attended to actuality. Like the carpenter who says: "I hate to say there are classes, but it's just that people are more comfortable with people of like backgrounds." His grouping of people by "like backgrounds," scientifically uncertain as it may be, is nearly as good a way as any to specify what it is that distinguishes one class from another. If you feel no need to explicate your allusions or in any way explain what you mean, you are probably talking with someone in your class. And that's true whether you're discussing the Rams and the Forty-Niners, RV's, the House (i.e. Christ Church, Oxford), Mama Leone's, the Big Board, "the Vineyard," "Baja," or the Porcellian. In Class: A Guide Through the American Status System I deal with some of the visible and audible signs of social class, but I stick largely with those that reflect choice. That means that I do not consider matters of race, or, except now and then, religion or politics. Race is visible, but it is not chosen. Religion and politics, while usually chosen, don't show, except for the occasional front-yard shrine or car bumper sticker. When you look at a person you don't see "Roman Catholic" or "liberal": you see hand-printed necktie or "crappy polyester shirt"; you hear parameters or in regards to. In attempting to make sense of indicators like these, I have been guided by perception and feel rather than by any method that could be deemed "scientific," believing with Arthur Marwick, author of Class: Image and Reality (1980), that "class... is too serious a subject to leave to the social scientists." It should be a serious subject in America especially, because here we lack a convenient system of inherited titles, ranks, and honors, and each generation has to define the hierarchies all over again. The society changes faster than any other on earth, and the American, almost uniquely, can be puzzled about where, in the society, he stands. The things that conferred class in the 1930's - white linen, golf knickers, chrome cocktail shakers, vests with white piping - are, to put it mildly, unlikely to do so today. Belonging to a rapidly changing rather than a traditional society, Americans find Knowing Where You Stand harder than do most Europeans. And a yet more pressing matter, Making It, assumes crucial importance here. "How'm I doin?" Mayor Koch of New York used to bellow, and most of his audience sensed that he was, appropriately, asking the representative American question. It seems no accident that, as the British philosopher Anthony Quinton says, "The book of etiquette in its modern form... is largely an American product, the great names being Emily Post... and Amy Vanderbilt." The reason is that the United States is preeminently the venue of newcomers, with a special need to place themselves advantageously and to get on briskly. "Some newcomers," says Quinton, "are geographical, that is, immigrants; others are economic, the newly rich; others again chronological, the young." All are faced with the problem inseparable from the operations of a mass society, earning respect. The comic Rodney Dangerfield, complaining that he don't get none, belongs to the same national species as that studied by John Adams, who says, as early as 1805: "The rewards... in this life are esteem and admiration of others - the punishments are neglect and contempt... The desire of the esteem of others is as real a want of nature as hunger - and the neglect and contempt of the world as severe a pain as the gout or stone..." About the same time the Irish poet Thomas Moore, sensing the special predicament Americans were inviting with the egalitarian Constitution, described the citizens of Washington, D.C., as creatures "born to be slaves, and struggling to be lords." Thirty years later, in Democracy in America, Alexis de Tocqueville put his finger precisely on the special problem of class aspiration here. "Nowhere," he wrote, "do citizens appear so insignificant as in a democratic nation." Nowhere, consequently, is there more strenuous effort to achieve - earn would probably not be the right word - significance. And still later in the nineteenth century, Walt Whitman, in Democratic Vistas (1871), perceived that in the United States, where the form of government promotes a condition (or at least an illusion) of uniformity among the citizens, one of the unique anxieties is going to be the constant struggle for individual self-respect based upon social approval. That is, where everybody is somebody, nobody is anybody. In a recent Louis Harris poll, "respect from others" is what 76 percent of respondents said they wanted most. Addressing prospective purchasers of a coffee table, an ad writer recently spread before them this most enticing American vision: "Create a rich, warm, sensual allusion to your own good taste that will demand respect and consideration in every setting you care to imagine." The special hazards attending the class situation in America, where movement appears so fluid and where the prizes seem available to anyone who's lucky, are disappointment, and, following close on that, envy. Because the myth conveys the impression that you can readily earn your way upward, disillusion and bitterness are particularly strong when you find yourself trapped in a class system you've been half persuaded isn't important. When in early middle life some people discover that certain limits have been placed on their capacity to ascend socially by such apparent irrelevancies as heredity, early environment, and the social class of their immediate forebears, they go into something like despair, which, if generally secret, is no less destructive. De Tocqueville perceived the psychic dangers. "In democratic times," he granted, "enjoyments are more intense than in the ages of aristocracy, and the numbers of those who partake in them is vastly larger." But, he added, in egalitarian atmospheres "man's hopes and desires are oftener blasted, the soul is more stricken and perturbed, and care itself more keen." And after blasted hopes, envy. The force of sheer class envy behind vile and even criminal behavior in this country, the result in part of disillusion over the official myth of classlessness, should never be underestimated. The person who, parking his attractive car in a large city, has returned to find his windows smashed and his radio aerial snapped off will understand what I mean. Speaking in West Virginia in 1950, Senator Joseph R. McCarthy used language that leaves little doubt about what he was really getting at - not so much "Communism" as the envied upper-middle and upper classes. "It has not been the less fortunate or members of minority groups who have been selling this nation out," he said, "but rather those who have had all the benefits, the finest homes, the finest college education... ." Pushed far enough, class envy issues in revenge egalitarianism, which the humorist Roger Price, in The Great Roob Revolution (1970), distinguishes from "democracy" thus: "Democracy demands that all of its citizens begin the race even. Egalitarianism insists that they all finish even." Then we get the situation satirized in L.P. Hartley's novel Facial Justice (1960), about "the prejudice against good lucks" in a future society somewhat like ours. There, inequalities of appearance are redressed by government plastic surgeons, but the scalpel isn't used to make everyone beautiful - it's used to make everyone plain. Despite our public embrace of political and judicial equality, in individual perception and understanding - much of which we refrain from publicizing - we arrange things vertically and insist on crucial differences in value. Regardless of what we say about equality, I think everyone at some point comes to feel like the Oscar Wilde who said, "The brotherhood of man is not a mere poet's dream: it is a most depressing and humiliating reality." It's as if in our hear of hearts we don't want agglomerations but distinctions. Analysis and separation we find interesting, synthesis boring. Although it is disinclined to designate a hierarchy of social classes, the federal government seems to admit that if in law we are all equal, in virtually all other ways we are not. Thus the eighteen grades into which it divides its civil-servant employees, from grade 1 at the bottom (messenger, etc.) up through 2 (mail clerk), 5 (secretary), 9 (chemist), to 14 (legal administrator), and finally 16, 17, and 18 (high level administrators). In the construction business there's a social hierarchy of jobs, with "dirt work," or mere excavation, at the bottom; the making of sewers, roads, and tunnels in the middle; and work on buildings (the taller, the higher) at the top. Those who sell "executive desks" and related office furniture know that they and their clients agree on a rigid "class" hierarchy. Desks made of oak are at the bottom, and those of walnut are next. Then, moving up, mahogany is, if you like, "upper middle class," until we arrive, finally, at the apex: teak. In the army, at ladies' social functions, pouring the coffee is the prerogative of the senior officer's wife because, as the ladies all know, coffee outranks tea. There seems no place where hierarchical status-orderings aren't discoverable. Take musical instruments. In a symphony orchestra the customary ranking of sections recognizes the difficulty and degree of subtlety of various kinds of instruments: strings are on top, woodwinds just below, then brass, and, at the bottom, percussion. On the difficulty scale, the accordion is near the bottom, violin near the top. Another way of assigning something like "social class" to instruments is to consider the prestige of the group in which the instrument is customarily played. As the composer Edward T. Cone says, "If you play a violin, you can play in a string quartet or symphony orchestra, but not in a jazz band and certainly not in a marching band. Among woodwinds, therefore, flute, and oboe, which are primarily symphonic instruments, are 'better' than the clarinet, which can be symphonic, jazz, or band. Among brasses, the French horn ranks highest because it hasn't customarily been used in jazz. Among percussionists, tympani is high for the same reason." And (except for the bassoon) the lower the notes an instrument is designed to produce, in general the lower its class, bass instruments being generally easier to play. Thus a sousaphone is lower than a trumpet, a bass viol lower than a viola, etc. If you hear "My boy's taking lessons on the trombone," your smile will be a little harder to control than if you hear "My boy's taking lessons on the flute." On the other hand, to hear "My boy's taking lessons on the viola da gamba" is to receive a powerful signal of class, the kind attaching to antiquarianism and museum, gallery, or "educational" work. Guitars (except when played in "classical" - that is, archaic - style) are low by nature, and that is why they were so often employed as tools of intentional class degradation by young people in the 1960s and '70s. The guitar was the perfect instrument for the purpose of signaling these young people's flight from the upper-middle and middle classes, associated as it is with Gypsies, cowhands, and other personnel without inherited or often even earned money and without fixed residence. The former Socialist and editor of the Partisan Review William Barrett, looking back thirty years, concludes that "the Classless Society looks more and more like a Utopian illusion. The socialist countries develop a class structure of then own," although there, he points out, the classes are very largely based on bureaucratic toadying. "Since we are bound... to have classes in any case, why not have them in the more organic, heterogeneous and variegated fashion" indigenous to the West? And since we have them, why not know as much as we can about them? The subject may be touchy, but it need not be murky forever.
Class Dismissed A new status anxiety is infecting affluent hipdom
By Sandra Tsing Loh
Some 25 years have passed since the publication of Paul Fussell’s naughty treat Class: A Guide Through the American Status System, and I think this quarter-century mark merits the raising of either a yachting pennant, an American flag, or a wind sock with the Budweiser logo (corresponding to Fussell’s demarcations of Upper Class, Middle Class, and Prole). For readers who somehow missed this snide, martini-dry American classic, do have your assistant Tessa run out and get it immediately (Upper), or at least be sure to worriedly skim this magazine summary over a low-fat bagel (Middle), because Fussell’s bibelot-rich tropes still resonate.
Back in 1983, Fussell—author of the renowned book The Great War and Modern Memory—argued that although Americans loathe discussing social class, this relatively new, rugged country of ours did indeed have a British-style class system, if less defined by money than by that elusive quality called taste. To be sure, Fussell’s universe is somewhat passé, in that its population is almost exclusively white (with the Mafia thrown in for color), and the three “classes” in his opening primer conform to clichés we might think of as Old-Money Wasp, Midwestern Insurance Salesman, and Southern Trailer Trash. The top classes, according to Fussell (with a hint of Nancy Mitford), drink Scotch on the rocks in a tumbler decorated with sailboats and say “Grandfather died”; Middles say “Martooni” and “Grandma passed away”; Proles drink domestic beer in a can and say “Uncle was taken to Jesus.” The still-fresh guilty pleasure of the reading, however, comes from the insistent unspooling, with an almost Ptolemaic complexity, of Fussell’s cocktail-party-ready argument. (I picture him in rumpled tie elbowing his laughing-head-into-her-hands hostess while he gestures breezily with a glass of chardonnay—white wine itself being much classier in 1983 than now.) By chapter two, Fussell is revealing that he believes there are actually nine classes (Top Out-of-Sight, Upper, Upper Middle, Middle, High Proletarian, Mid-Proletarian, Low Proletarian, Destitute, Bottom Out-of-Sight). His Heart of Darkness journey wends boldly past unicorns (High Prole), ladies’ thimble collections (Middle), men’s hobbies (“One must learn that fishing in fresh water is classier than in salt, and that if salmon and trout are the things to catch, a catfish is something by all means to avoid catching”), the Sunbrella hat (for which he reserves a timeless—and I think appropriate—ire), “parody” hats favored by the upper-middle class such as Pat Moynihan’s tweedy bog cap, and the perils of the dark-blue visored “Greek fisherman’s cap” as advertised in The New Yorker (New Yorker ads themselves being, Fussell explains, crucibles of middle-class high anxiety). God forbid you get that cap in black leather (“Only six things can be made of black leather without causing class damage to the owner: belts, shoes, handbags, gloves, camera cases, and dog leashes”). He even threads through the subtle lexicon of tie patterns—from “amoeba-like foulard blobs” (Upper), signal flags (Upper Middle), musical notes (sliding downward), to Oh Hell, It’s Monday (quite low), with special horror reserved for the southwestern bola (“Says the bola, ‘The person wearing me is a child of nature, even though actually eighty years old’”). Literally no stone—or soapstone—goes unturned.
The high-prole bathroom reveals two contradictory impulses at war: one is the desire to exhibit a “hospital” standard of cleanliness, which means splashing a lot of Lysol or Pine Oil around; the other is to display as much fanciness and luxury as possible, which means a lurch in the opposite direction, toward fur toilet seat covers and towels which don’t work not merely because they are made largely of Dacron but also because a third of the remaining threads are “gold.”
The experience of reading (and re-reading) Class is akin to wiping goggles one didn’t know were fogged. Fussell’s methodology settles into the brain like a virus; one soon cannot stop nanocategorizing one’s world. A quarter century later, most of Fussell’s categories live on—if with some fiscal damage. Fussell’s topmost denizens were “out of sight” in hilltop manses at the end of long, curving driveways. The billionaires in Michael Tolkin’s hilariously mordant The Return of the Player are even farther out, prow-jousting at sea in their satellite-technology-equipped yachts. Indeed, this novel is such a teeth-gnashingly precise class almanac, that Tolkin should surely replace Tom Wolfe as our modern-day high-society-anxiety chronicler (at least of the West Coast variety). Tolkin is particularly hard on his people, wealthy Los Angeles Jews, a variation on the American upper class with their conspicuously consuming Hebraism. At a bar mitzvah at a Reform synagogue that shares a driveway with Milken High (named deftly not for Michael but for the brother):
Torahs dressed in embroidered covers and silver breastplates stood on the branches of a sculpted tree behind a sheer curtain, like expensive boots in a winter window display.
In attendance is a “fiesta” of rich Jews:
the trim skeptical men and their two categories of wives, all of them brilliantly educated, some of them successful professionals themselves, others still drifting on the messy alibi supplied by their genuinely screwed-up relationship with their genuinely screwed-up mothers, but all of them, pediatric endocrinologists, failed Tibetan wool importers, soccer moms and private school committee volunteers, recognizing each other’s clan by a signal from within an unfakable right for their chaotic anxieties and complaints to take up space around them.
This isn’t to say that Hollywood Jews’ counterparts, Upper-Class Gentiles, are dead. Their ethos (or at least the ethos of those who aspire to Upper-Class Gentilehood) is lovingly enshrined, for instance, in Vanity Fair, with its wide-eyed revelations from the dusty alcoves of Kennedy history and obsessive detailing of the summerings, winterings, and fallings of obscure Eurotrash. (Though how I devour like stale-but-still-tasty Mon Cheri candies Dominick Dunne’s dispatches about, oh, “Arch Viscount Fernando of Capri’s 80th birthday party—he’s a Scorpio!” featuring murky snaps out from which inevitably loom, like death and taxes, Barry Diller and the shiny gorgon head of Diane von Furstenberg.) Meanwhile, tacking starboard then port around Graydon Carter’s fresh, startled horror over the latest outrages of the Bush administration (and I will miss those) are soft-focus ads pimping what appear to be blond, pink-argyle-sweater-clad, Ralph Lauren–fraternity Hitler Youth who look 30 seconds away from clubbing me (a light-mocha-hued person) over the head with an oar, or perhaps with a Nautica-logo polo mallet, sunglasses by Fendi. Magazine reading for Middles, though (moving the goalposts in from both coasts), is best defined by the literary output of staid airlines such as Southwest, Delta, and Continental (as opposed to the more edgily cosmopolitan JetBlue and Virgin). Luxuriously Middle are those sumptuous photo ads for restaurants like Ruth’s Chris Steak House (Why two names?) featuring mute, glistening hillocks of beef. (What is it about a close-up of a filet’s dewy, reddened inside that so tempts the in-flight reader?) And how exquisitely State Farm Middle Manager are the matchmaking ads of Selective Search and It’s Just Lunch!, with their come-hither phalanxes of kitten-nosed executive female “lunch directors”? Their unquestioned queen, I’ve ferreted out, is President Barbie Adler, with her strangely hypnotic execu-speak about eliminating “the pain points” in the dating process, as though the solution to contemporary romance is a Tucson-based chiropractic laser procedure performed on tibiae thrown out in racquetball.
Fussell believed in an escape pod from this tyranny of classhood: residence in a special American psycho-emotional space called “category X.” (Fussell borrowed his notion from Matthew Arnold’s analysis of the three British classes—even a century earlier, Arnold was describing this fourth set of “aliens.”) Fussell’s Xs were essentially bohemians, the young people who flocked to cities in search of “art,” “writing,” and “creative work,” ideally without a supervisor. Xs disregarded authority; they dressed down on every occasion; they drank no-name liquor (“Beefeater Gin and Cutty Sark Scotch betray the credulous victim of advertising, and hence the middle class”); they wore moccasins and down vests (in 1983, Fussell considered L.L.Bean and Lands’ End natural X clothiers); they carelessly threw out, unread, their college alumni magazines.
Roger that. Even today, I think one’s relation to one’s alma mater is fraught with haute-bourgeois peril. In descending order of coolness are: 1. Dropped out of prestigious college; 2. Graduated from prestigious school, never bring it up unless asked—then as joke; 3. Graduated from prestigious school with honors, bring up quickly, no irony; 4. Graduated, have become garish, cheerful head of alumni booster committee. I say “coolness” instead of “class” because that’s how desperately I cling to my tattered X membership card, even as I creep toward 50 (What? Haven’t you heard? Fifty is the new 36! Clock? What’s a clock? I obey no clock!). Fussell argued that Xs wear T-shirts without lettering or only with “interesting” lettering, and it’s true that, even today, I treasure my—yes, cliché—Ramones T-shirt. But wait! This is not the brand-new Ramones T-shirt sported so conspicuously by needy soul-patched 50-ish alternadads at the Silver Lake dog park. If you actually bought the black Ramones tee the year it came out, the lettering will be so faded (as mine is), you literally cannot read it. It looks like a linty rag. So there. Granted, this sense of X superiority is an absurd stance for a fanny-pack-wearing mother in Desitin-smeared drawstring Target pants who never particularly liked the Ramones and who, like any obedient dog, now dutifully listens to public radio while driving her kids about town in a McDonald’s-bag-strewn Toyota minivan. However, I believe it is the very je-ne-sais-quoi boldness with which I saucily steer my bird-shit-bedecked “ride” into scattering flocks of L.A. valet parkers that marks the true rebel. As Fussell puts it:
When an X person, male or female, meets a member of an identifiable class, the costume, no matter what it is, conveys the message “I am freer and less terrified than you are.”
I believe the true X philosophy is to try to destroy “hipness” wherever one sees it. (Some 40-something mom friends and I thought the way to drain the pagan power from Burning Man would be to set up our own Jenny Craig camp there. And, if we get child care, we will!) Sadly, though, rebellion is not the outlier stance it once was. Xs are no longer America’s free. By 2009, Xs are neither what Fussell called the “classless class” nor an “unmonied aristocracy” with the freedom of the Out-of-Sights, if without the bucks. (Note: tickets to Burning Man start at more than $200.) Today’s Xs do not “occupy the one social place in the U.S.A. where the ethic of buying and selling is not all-powerful.” Thanks to the economic rise, over the past three decades, of what Richard Florida (betraying a wee bit too much admiration) calls “the creative class,” Xs now rule the world. Or, as David Brooks wrote in Bobos in Paradise (Bobos is short for “bourgeois bohemians”): “Dumb good-looking people with great parents have been displaced by smart, ambitious, educated, and antiestablishment people with scuffed shoes.” Today’s Xs define themselves largely by what they consume. This is particularly well articulated, I think, in an L.A. Times home-section piece I clipped in 2005 about Brian and Gigi Levangie Grazer—think film mogul and writer/trophy wife making do in a modest 11,000-plus-square-foot home complete with little pads and pencils for brainstorming poised, as I pictured it, on every renewable-bamboo table. (Children: Asia and Lennon? Upper-class pediatric frailties: sugar issues, lactose intolerance, wheat allergies, Asperger’s, difficulty with gestalt thinking?—as opposed to the Old World ruling-class pediatric scourge of hemophilia.) Charity itself is complicated when one hates to admit that one rules. Although old-school WASPs might tinkle their G-and-Ts while hosting an annual spring benefit for The Poor, the creative class will throw a star-studded fete to combat a politically fashionable disease, with celebs relaying anecdotes about personal frailty (as detailed in their candid new addiction memoirs). They can be rich and feel vaguely anti-establishment at the same time. The New World is all Richard Branson interviewed by Charlie Rose onstage at the Clinton Conference on Global … Whatever—with a faint chunky mix-in of Third World Poverty. (The creative class usually prefers faraway poor people to the local variety, and always prefers the “ethnic” poor to the white kind.) At network-TV meetings, millionaire 20-something comedy writers see how low they can go with torn jeans, T-shirts, and grimy Red Sox caps, while the only guys in coat and tie on the lot are the Honduran valet parkers. That grimy baseball cap signifies Harvard Lampoon alum, which opens the door to Hollywood comedy riches, in a process that can seem, to the uninitiated, truly bewildering and mysterious. X people offer jobs to those they recognize, by certain nuanced clues, as members of their creative tribe, which makes people fear that they might mistransmit a code—bringing us back to Fussell’s rubric of class being announced in clothing, lifestyle, and speech. What will best fire the small talk, and the resulting intimate connection, that invigorates the start of a pitch meeting? Mets cap? Cubs cap? Yankees cap? What if you went to UC Davis instead of Harvard—are you not as funny? What is the right note of irony to apply to your hip-hop speech, given that you are, in actuality, suburban, 33, and white? Oh, yes, the newfangled Xs now have not only the money, but also the anxiety. It’s easy to be banished from the land of affluent hipdom—especially now that the scratch that pays for all that hipness has been depleted. When I see those TV commercials of silverback Baby Boomers sprinting with vintage surfboards toward ever-higher-yielding money-market funds, I feel both Boomer derision and a gnawing dread that my own funds are not similarly accruing (and in fact they are not—but maybe, to offset the losses, Brian Grazer will option my book?). Although in Fussell’s day, the denizens of the middle class were the more piquant sufferers of “status panic,” today the most metaphysically fearful group is, in fact, the Xs. It’s not just that Romantic Selfhood—Walter Pater’s notion of burning with a “hard, gemlike flame,” which is the true emotional underpinning of bohemia—has become commodified. Fairly harmless is the $4 venti soy latte purchased amid Starbucks’s track lighting, Nina Simone crooning, and a story about Costa Rican beans that have sailed around the world just to see YOU! It’s that Selfhood has its own berth now in the psychiatrist Abraham Maslow’s “hierarchy of needs,” a generational shift presaged by American sociologists who, as early as the 1970s, posited that, while hungry people are concerned about survival, those who grow up in abundance will hunger for self-expression. In the relatively affluent post–Cold War era, the search for self-expression has evolved into a desire to not have that self-expression challenged, which in turn necessitates living among people who think and feel just as you do. It’s why so many bohemians flee gritty Los Angeles for verdant Portland, where left-leaning citizens pride themselves on their uniform, monotonously progressive culture—the Zipcars, the organic gardens, the funky graphic-novel stores, and the thriving alternative-music scene. (In the meantime, I’ve also noticed that Portland is much whiter than Los Angeles, disconcertingly white.) Further, as Bill Bishop argues in his disturbing, illuminating The Big Sort: Why the Clustering of Like-Minded America Is Tearing Us Apart, the creative class’s quest for lifestyle self-determination has had a giant and, in some ways, deleterious national effect. In the past, U.S. migration patterns were based on economics and available jobs. By contrast, writes Bishop, over the past 30 years, “there was a surge of people who wanted to live in cities for what could only be social—or even aesthetic—reasons.” In Austin alone, the percentage of people with a college education went from 17 percent in 1970 to 45 percent in 2004. In 60 years, the total population of San Francisco stayed roughly the same, but the average house price rose ninefold, from $60,162 to nearly $550,000 (compared with Cincinnati, where the average house price increased from $65,000 to $145,000). New “superstar cities” (a term coined by the economist Joseph Gyourko) were
metro areas where residence had become, in essence, a luxury good. People paid for the privilege of being in cities such as San Francisco, Seattle, San Jose, Portland, Los Angeles, New York, Austin, and Raleigh-Durham because they wanted to live there, not because they expected an economic return.
The function of cities had changed. Their reason for being—and their residents’ reason for living within them—was no longer to produce salable goods and services. The city’s new product was lifestyle.
These locales became “‘consumer cities’—metro areas that catered to the well-paid, well-educated people who moved there.” Counterintuitively, an over-clustering of educated people in one region is not always a social boon. Citing the research of the political scientist Diana Mutz, Bishop shows that, startlingly,
education is presumed to nurture an appreciation of diversity: the more schooling, the greater the respect for works of literature and art, different cultures, and various types of music. Certainly, well-educated Americans see themselves as worldly, nuanced, and comfortable with difference. Education also should make us curious about—even eager to hear—different political points of view. But it doesn’t. The more educated Americans become—and the richer—the less likely they are to discuss politics with those who have different points of view.
In 2000, the research of Robert Putnam, author of Bowling Alone, showed that the correlation between the health of civic culture and the affluence of the local economy was actually negative; the highest-tech cities tended to have the lowest rate of civic connections. I think of the Silicon Valley runner guy we met in San Francisco who, when we showed him a set of lost car keys we’d found on the path in Golden Gate Park, said: “I wouldn’t trust the police with those. Post a notice on Craigslist!” For all of Richard Florida’s celebration of San Francisco, the city has been hemorrhaging families with children at an alarming rate, because of the creative class’s flight from public schools there. (Florida proposes some remedies for these problems in “How the Crash Will Reshape America,” page 44.)
It will be interesting to see, now that the apocalypse has arrived, how various modes of American status-striving will be rejiggered, particularly those predicated on amassing large amounts of debt.
Never mind Fussell’s outdated notion that sartorial fearlessness belongs to the sloppy-T-shirt X class; the insouciant fun will probably now belong to the few defiant outlying WASPs still quaffing Bloodys before noon and tumbling off the dock in lime-green-and-blue whale pants. Or to those highest of High Proles called pimps. (For extraordinary archiving of such, see the classic HBO documentary Pimps Up, Ho’s Down, featuring an annual pimp awards ball with gents in elaborately tailored suits, watch fobs, and bowlers, in “fuck you” colors of hot purple and tangelo, who explode out of ornate Freddie Munster Model T cars.) As for the Upper Middles and their betters, what about Tolkin’s formulation of “an unfakable right for their chaotic anxieties and complaints to take up space around them”? That really is financially viable only for the real upper class (to wit, not the millionaire but the ten-millionaire or more). The first tower to fall, for middle-class families, will be that fiduciary meritocratic yoke, the expensive education. Increasingly, college tuitions are outstripping the middle class’s ability to pay them. Although 20-somethings going for “hard” educations in things like medicine (aka “the Koreans,” quipped a professor friend) may still see a return, the high-water days of the $50,000-a-year liberal-arts education are drawing to a close. (I think of the Boomer parents of the Wellesley student recently trolling all of us—their professional associates—for an “exciting summer job” for their daughter. All I had to offer was babysitting. Inquired the Wellesley girl: “Can you send me a job description?” I wrote back: “BABYSITTING! $12 an hour!” She took it.) By contrast, the life of the High Prole may start to look reliable, and good—have you seen what plumbers make? Can your Ivy League–trained nephew do that? But perhaps these times of hardship will see a return of the true bohemian, as in the days when the Left Bank was actually squalid. Stylistically, some artistic people are returning to thrift chic (either Goodwill retro wear, or something akin to the party a girlfriend threw recently called “Bitch Swap,” where you trade around the rags you’re tired of). Surely now the honestly eco-conscious will lead a bold return to—gasp!—tap water. (Because what’s worse for the environment than drinking water … out of plastic bottles … flown in from Fiji?) As Starbucks stores close around us, what’s more nostalgically amusing than Folgers Crystals? To save gas money, I’d forecast a mass movement from cars to cruiser bikes, but for that you must live in a groovy, bike-friendly (expensive!) city. However, listen for poignant, witty Frank O’Hara stories about transformative experiences that occur on public transportation (in the rain), on This American Life. As Borders stores shutter, perhaps we’ll see a reflowering of public libraries. In any case, unable to secure those astronomical loans, more Xers will have to start rubbing shoulders with The Other, living in truly mixed neighborhoods, next door to such noncreative types as Kohl’s-shopping back-office workers and actual not-yet-ready-for-their-close-up-in-Yoga- Journal immigrants. More members of a once-creative class may now have to live like immigrants, if not 12 to a single-family home, at least with roommates, or other family members—and not necessarily one’s favorites. Speaking of which, even the self-actualized may not be able to afford the heady liberation of divorce. Get the Rick Warren tapes out! Enlightened women may have to stay not just married but in for the night—what with restaurants being so unaffordable, home life will be all about the hearth, the candlelight, the guitar (and not a vintage Les Paul). This economic catastrophe is teaching the Xers that their prized self-expression and their embrace of personal choice leads to … the collapse of capitalism. Time to inculcate not those self-satisfyingly hip and rebellious values—innovation! self-fulfillment!—cherished by the creative class (a class, after all, that includes in its ranks those buccaneering entrepreneurs who’ve led us down the primrose path), but those staid and stolid values of the bourgeoisie: industry, sobriety, moderation, self-discipline, and avoidance of debt. Out with the grungy baseball cap (cheap on its own, but not so thrifty when accompanied by those other accoutrements of formerly affluent hipdom—the iPhone, the rain-forest-safari vacation, the richly appointed LEED-certified house) and in with the dowdy JCPenney suit. The age of narcissistic creative-class strivers has brought this country cool new neighborhoods and an infinitely better selection of coffees and greens, but it has also brought shameful social stratification and a consumer binge that our children’s children may well be paying off. The Xer is dead. Long live the burgher!