Wednesday, 26 November 2014

The Cleveland Street Scandal.

The Cleveland Street scandal occurred in 1889, when a homosexual male brothel in Cleveland Street, Fitzrovia, London, was discovered by police. At the time, sexual acts between men were illegal in Britain, and the brothel's clients faced possible prosecution and certain social ostracism if discovered. It was rumoured that one client was Prince Albert Victor, who was the eldest son of the Prince of Wales and second-in-line to the British throne, though this rumour has never been substantiated. The government was accused of covering up the scandal to protect the names of any aristocratic patrons.

Another client was said to be Lord Arthur Somerset, an equerry to the Prince of Wales. Both he and the brothel keeper, Charles Hammond, managed to flee abroad before a prosecution could be brought. The male prostitutes, who also worked as telegraph messenger boys for the Post Office, were given light sentences and no clients were prosecuted. After Henry James FitzRoy, Earl of Euston, was named in the press as a client, he successfully sued for libel. The British press never named Prince Albert Victor, and there is no evidence he ever visited the brothel, but his inclusion in the rumours has coloured biographers' perceptions of him since.

The scandal fuelled the attitude that male homosexuality was an aristocratic vice that corrupted lower-class youths. Such perceptions were still prevalent in 1895 when the Marquess of Queensberry accused Oscar Wilde of being an active homosexual.
In July 1889, the Metropolitan Police uncovered a male brothel operated by Charles Hammond in London's Cleveland Street. Under police interrogation, the male prostitutes and pimps revealed the names of their clients, who included Lord Arthur Somerset, an Extra Equerry to the Prince of Wales. At the time, all homosexual acts between men were illegal, and the clients faced social ostracism, prosecution, and at worst, two years' imprisonment with hard labour.

The resultant Cleveland Street scandal implicated other high-ranking figures in British society, and rumours swept upper-class London of the involvement of a member of the royal family, namely Prince Albert Victor. The prostitutes had not named Albert Victor, and it is suggested that Somerset's solicitor, Arthur Newton, fabricated and spread the rumours to take the heat off his client.Letters exchanged between the Treasury Solicitor, Sir Augustus Stephenson, and his assistant, Hamilton Cuffe, make coded reference to Newton's threats to implicate Albert Victor.

The Prince of Wales intervened in the investigation; no clients were ever prosecuted and nothing against Albert Victor was proven. Although there is no conclusive evidence for or against his involvement, or that he ever visited a homosexual club or brothel,[38] the rumours and cover-up have led some biographers to speculate that he did visit Cleveland Street,[39] and that he was "possibly bisexual, probably homosexual".[40] This is contested by other commentators, one of whom refers to him as "ardently heterosexual" and his involvement in the rumours as "somewhat unfair". The historian H. Montgomery Hyde wrote, "There is no evidence that he was homosexual, or even bisexual."

Somerset's sister, Lady Waterford, denied that her brother knew anything about Albert Victor. She wrote, "I am sure the boy is as straight as a line ... Arthur does not the least know how or where the boy spends his time ... he believes the boy to be perfectly innocent." Lady Waterford, however, also believed Somerset's protestations of his own innocence. In surviving private letters to his friend Lord Esher, Somerset denies knowing anything directly about Albert Victor, but confirms that he has heard the rumours, and hopes that they will help quash any prosecution. He wrote, "I can quite understand the Prince of Wales being much annoyed at his son's name being coupled with the thing but that was the case before I left it ... we were both accused of going to this place but not together ... they will end by having out in open court exactly what they are all trying to keep quiet. I wonder if it is really a fact or only an invention of that arch ruffian Hammond." He continued, "I have never mentioned the boy's name except to Probyn, Montagu and Knollys when they were acting for me and I thought they ought to know. Had they been wise, hearing what I knew and therefore what others knew, they ought to have hushed the matter up, instead of stirring it up as they did, with all the authorities."

The rumours persisted; sixty years later the official biographer of King George V, Harold Nicolson, was told by Lord Goddard, who was a twelve-year old schoolboy at the time of the scandal, that Albert Victor "had been involved in a male brothel scene, and that a solicitor had to commit perjury to clear him. The solicitor was struck off the rolls for his offence, but was thereafter reinstated." In fact, none of the lawyers in the case was convicted of perjury or struck off during the scandal, but Somerset's solicitor, Arthur Newton, was convicted of obstruction of justice for helping his clients escape abroad, and was sentenced to six weeks in prison. Over twenty years later in 1910, Newton was struck off for twelve months for professional misconduct after falsifying letters from another of his clients, the notorious murderer Dr Crippen. In 1913, Newton was struck off indefinitely and sentenced to three years imprisonment for obtaining money by false pretences.

During his life, the bulk of the British press treated Albert Victor with nothing but respect and the eulogies that immediately followed his death were full of praise. The radical politician, Henry Broadhurst, who had met both Albert Victor and his brother George, noted that they had "a total absence of affectation or haughtiness". On the day of Albert Victor's death, the leading Liberal politician, William Ewart Gladstone, wrote in his personal private diary "a great loss to our party". However, Queen Victoria referred to Albert Victor's "dissipated life" in private letters to her eldest daughter, which were later published and, in the mid-20th century, the official biographers of Queen Mary and King George V, James Pope-Hennessy and Harold Nicolson respectively, promoted hostile assessments of Albert Victor's life, portraying him as lazy, ill-educated and physically feeble. The exact nature of his "dissipations" is not clear, but in 1994 Theo Aronson favoured the theory on "admittedly circumstantial" evidence that the "unspecified 'dissipations' were predominantly homosexual".Aronson's judgement was based on Albert Victor's "adoration of his elegant and possessive mother; his 'want of manliness'; his 'shrinking from horseplay'; and his 'sweet, gentle, quiet and charming' nature", as well as the Cleveland Street rumours and his opinion that there is "a certain amount of homosexuality in all men". He admitted, however, that "the allegations of Prince Eddy's homosexuality must be treated cautiously."

Rumours that Prince Albert Victor may have committed, or been responsible for, the Jack the Ripper murders were first mentioned in print in 1962. It was later alleged, amongst others by Stephen Knight in Jack the Ripper: The Final Solution, that Albert Victor fathered a child with a woman in the Whitechapel district of London, and either he or several high-ranking men committed the murders in an effort to cover up his indiscretion. Though such claims have been repeated frequently, scholars have dismissed them as fantasies, and refer to indisputable proof of the Prince's innocence. For example, on 30 September 1888, when Elizabeth Stride and Catherine Eddowes were murdered in London, Albert Victor was over 500 miles (over 800 km) away at Balmoral, the royal retreat in Scotland, in the presence of Queen Victoria, other family members, visiting German royalty and a large number of staff. According to the official Court Circular, family journals and letters, newspaper reports and other sources, he could not have been near any of the murders. Other fanciful conspiracy theories are that he died of syphilis or poison, that he was pushed off a cliff on the instructions of Lord Randolph Churchill or that his death was faked to remove him from the line of succession.

Albert Victor's posthumous reputation became so bad that in 1964 Philip Magnus called his death a "merciful act of providence", supporting the theory that his death removed an unsuitable heir to the throne and replaced him with the reliable and sober George V. In 1972, Michael Harrison was the first modern author to re-assess Albert Victor and portray him in a more sympathetic light. In recent years, Andrew Cook has continued attempts to rehabilitate Albert Victor's reputation, arguing that his lack of academic progress was partly due to the incompetence of his tutor, Dalton; that he was a warm and charming man; that there is no tangible evidence that he was homosexual or bisexual; that he held liberal views, particularly on Irish Home Rule; and that his reputation was diminished by biographers eager to improve the image of his brother, George.

The conspiracy theories surrounding Albert Victor have led to his portrayal in film as somehow responsible for or involved in the Jack the Ripper murders. Bob Clark's Sherlock Holmes mystery Murder by Decree was released in 1979 with "Duke of Clarence (Eddy)" played by Robin Marshall. Jack the Ripper was released in 1988 with Marc Culwick as Prince Albert Victor. Samuel West played "Prince Eddy" in The Ripper (1997) and Albert Victor as a child (with Jerome Watts and Charles Dance playing the character at older ages) in the TV miniseries Edward the Seventh, which starred West's father Timothy West as the title character. The Hughes brothers' From Hell was based on the graphic novel of the same name by Alan Moore and Eddie Campbell, and was released in 2001. Mark Dexter portrayed both "Prince Edward" and "Albert Sickert". The story is also the basis for the play Force and Hypocrisy by Doug Lucie.


A pair of alternative history novels, written by Peter Dickinson, imagine a world where Albert Victor survives and reigns as Victor I. In Gary Lovisi's parallel universe Sherlock Holmes short story, "The Adventure of the Missing Detective", Albert Victor is portrayed as a tyrannical king, who rules after the deaths (in suspicious circumstances) of both his grandmother and father. The Prince also appears as the murder victim in the first of the Lord Francis Powerscourt crime novels Goodnight Sweet Prince,[108] and as a murder suspect in the novel Death at Glamis Castle by Robin Paige. In both The Bloody Red Baron by Kim Newman and the novel I, Vampire by Michael Romkey, he is a vampire. In the former, he is the British monarch during World War I.


"Set against the vivid backdrop of this demi-monde, Theo Aronson presents the first full account of the curious life of Queen Victoria's grandson, Prince Albert Victor, known as Prince Eddy. The author explores the Prince's upbringing, his university and military careers, his alleged "secret marriage," his links with the Jack-the-Ripper murders, his early death, and, above all, his sexual orientation. For it was this that linked the young Prince's name to the Cleveland Street Scandal, the notorious homosexual brothel case that led to an extraordinary cover-up by the British government. " Prince Eddy...presents Victorian male homosexuality as a vibrant folk culture, one that pervaded all official institutions. Students of the erotic will love this book, and so will royal-watchers, but arbiters of sexual purity should hate it, for Mr. Aronson displays an underground culture that exposed its judges as upright liars."--Nina Auerbach, New York Times Book Review. B&W photos."


The Cleveland Street Scandal | London 1889 | Telegraph Rent Boys

The Cleveland Street Scandal

HISTORICAL NOTES: In 1889, the year in which this scandal takes place, it is legal for girls aged 12 and boys aged 14 to marry (with parental consent). Most people started work at the age of 6 (or younger) to help support their families and men had a life expectancy of just 40-45 years of age. Male homosexuality was illegal and punishable, if convicted of buggery, to penal servitude for life or for any term of not less than ten years. The death penalty for buggery had only recently been abolished in 1861.

Towards the end of the nineteenth century a gentleman by the name of Charles Hammond ran a male brothel located at No 19 Cleveland Street in London, just north of Oxford Street near Tottenham Court Road.

Hammond catered for a largely aristocratic clientele and for a number of years the existence of his establishment remained unknown to the authorities.

This all changed on 4th July 1889 when a telegraph boy called Charles Swinscow was searched as part of an ongoing investigation into money theft at his employers, the General Post Office. Eighteen shillings were found in his pockets, which at the time was worth more than a weeks salary to such a young man. Swinscow was taken in for questioning as part of the police operation.

When asked how he came to have such a large sum of money in his possession, Swinscow panicked and confessed he'd been recruited by Charles Hammond to work at a house in Cleveland Street where, for the sum of four shillings, he would permit the brothel's clients to "have a go between my legs" and "put their persons into me".

He then identified a number of other young telegraph boys who were also renting themselves out in this manner at the Cleveland Street establishment, leading to the apprehension and questioning of Henry Newlove, Algernon Allies and Charles Thickbroom.

Who Was Involved:

Henry Horace Newlove         16 yrs  Telegraph Boy - GPO 'Recruiter' for Hammond
Charles Thomas Swinscow    15 yrs  Telegraph Boy - First boy arrested for 'theft'
George Alma Wright  17 yrs  Telegraph Boy - 'Performed' with Newlove for voyeurs
Charles Ernest Thickbroom    17 yrs  Telegraph Boy
William Meech Perkins          16 yrs  Telegraph Boy - ID's Lord Alfred Somerset as a 'client'
Algernon Edward Allies        19 yrs  Houseboy - The Marlborough Club, used by Lord Somerset
George Barber            17 yrs  George Veck's 'Private Secretary' and boyfriend
John Saul        37 yrs  Infamous London rent boy - Possibly aka Jack Saul
                         
Charles Hammond     35 yrs  Brothel keeper of 19 Cleveland Street, London
George Daniel Veck

aka Rev George Veck
aka Rev George Barber

40 yrs  Ex General Post Office (GPO) employee, sacked for indecency with Telegraph boys. Lives at 19 Cleveland Street. Kept a coffee house in Gravesend, Kent. Has an 18 year old 'son' that travels with him.
PC Luke Hanks                     Police officer attached to the General Post Office
Mr Phillips                 Snr postal official who questions Swinscow with Hanks
Mr C H Raikes                      The Postmaster General
Mr James Monro                   Metropolitan Police Commissioner
Frederick Abberline   46 yrs  Police Chief Inspector, infamous for the 'Jack the Ripper' investigations in 1888, London's Whitechapel district
PC Richard Sladden             Police officer who carried out observations on the Cleveland Street brothel following Swinscow's arrest
Arthur Newton                      Lord Arthur Somerset's solicitor. Later to defend Oscar Wilde at his trial in 1895 and notorious murderer Dr Crippen
                         
Prince Albert Victor, the Duke of Clarence  25 yrs  Rumoured to be a 'Brothel Client' - Went on a seven month tour of British India in Sept 1889 to avoid the press & trials
Colonel Jervois of the
2nd Life Guards

            'Brothel Client' - Winchester Army Barracks
Lord Arthur Somerset
aka Mr Brown            37 yrs  'Brothel Client' - Named in Allies letters as 'Mr Brown'
Henry James Fitzroy

39 yrs  Accused of being a 'Brothel Client' - Earl of Euston
                         
Sir Augustus Stephenson                  Director of Public Prosecutions (DPP)
Hon Hamilton Cuffe             Assistant DPP - Six years later he would prosecute Oscar Wilde at his trial in 1895 as the Director of Public Prosecutions
Ernest Parke              Journalist - North London Press

After The Arrests

The officer in charge of the case, Chief Inspector Frederick Abberline, procured a warrant to arrest Charles Hammond on a charge of conspiracy to "to commit the abominable crime of buggery", but when he went to Cleveland Street, he found that Hammond had already disappeared.

The police made arrangements to observe the comings and goings at No 19 Cleveland Street, noting that a 'Mr Brown' called there on the 9th and 13th July 1889, following which on the 25th July both Swinscow and Thickbroom identified Mr Brown as one of the their clients.

Mr Brown was followed by police back to army barracks in Knightsbridge where he was soon identified as Lord Arthur Somerset, a younger son of Henry Charles Somerset, 8th Duke of Beaufort, a Major in the Royal Horse Guards and equerry to Edward, Prince of Wales, later King Edward VII.

Papers were sent to the Director of Public Prosecutions with a view to prosecuting Lord Arthur on a charge of gross indecency. The Prince of Wales was incredulous when he heard of it

"I won't believe it, any more than I should if they accused the Archbishop of Canterbury" he said.

Despite this gesture of support, Lord Somerset placed the matter in the hands of his solicitor Arthur Newton who contacted the DPP simply to mention the fact that his client, if prosecuted, might well name the Duke of Clarence whilst he was giving evidence in court.

Given that Albert, Duke of Clarence was the eldest son of the Prince of Wales and second in line to the throne, it was clear that the government would not want his name associated with the homosexual brothel at Cleveland Street. The authorities appeared to drag their heels over the matter, and in bringing Lord Arthur Somerset to trial, allowing him the opportunity to flee abroad. By the 18th October he was safely in Boulogne, France. He remained in exile for the remainder of his life and eventually died in the French Riviera in 1926.

But whilst Somerset escaped prosecution, the same could not be said of the unfortunate 'rent boys' caught up in the investigation. Swinscow together with Henry Newlove, Algernon Allies and Charles Thickbroom were brought before the Old Bailey in September 1889 and charged with gross indecency. They were all convicted. Newlove received a sentence of four months with hard labour whilst the others each got nine months.

This might have been the end of the story had it not been for a journalist named Ernest Parke, who ran a story on 28th September 1889 in the 'North London Press', claiming that the "heir to a duke and the younger son of a duke" had frequented Cleveland Street.

Again, on the 16th November he went so far as to name both Arthur Somerset and Henry James Fitzroy, the Earl of Euston, as the men in question and dropped a broad hint to his readers, by referring to a gentleman "more distinguished and more highly placed", that a member of the royal family was also involved.

Ernest Parke believed that it was safe to name the two young aristocrats as they had both fled the country. He was correct as far as Lord Arthur Somerset was concerned, but the Earl of Euston was not, as he thought, in Peru, but rather in England, and thus in order to defend his reputation felt obliged to bring a charge for criminal libel against Edward Parke.

The trial was heard at the Old Bailey on the 19th January 1890. Whilst Henry Fitzroy admitted that he had been to 19 Cleveland Street he claimed that it was all a mistake. According to his own testimony, he had only gone there after being given a card touting a 'tableaux plastique' (nude women) at the address, and that once he realised the true nature of the establishment, made his excuses and left.

Ernest Parke however produced a witness named John Saul, who went into some detail describing the kind of services that he had provided for Henry Fitzroy at Cleveland Street. Being a self-confessed prostitute, Saul's evidence was easily 'discredited' and so Ernest was found guilty of libel without justification and sentenced to one year's imprisonment with hard labour.

One more trial was to arise as a result of the Cleveland Street scandal in respect of the activities of Arthur Newton, defence solicitor to the aforementioned Arthur Somerset who, it was believed, had helped Somerset evade justice. Newton was brought before the court on the 12th December 1889 and charged with conspiracy to pervert the course of justice for allegedly interfering with witnesses and arranging their disappearance to France.

He was convicted but received the relatively mild punishment of six weeks in prison. He was even allowed to resume his legal practice afterwards and was later to become better known for representing the author and playwright Oscar Wilde.

This was still not quite the end of the matter as the MP Henry Labouchère, a noted campaigner against 'homosexual vice', who had earlier been responsible for including the offence of 'gross indecency' within the Criminal Law Amendment Act 1885, became convinced that some kind of 'cover-up' had been launched by the authorities.

On the 28th February 1890 he tried to persuade Parliament to establish a committee to investigate the whole affair, but his motion was defeated by a vote of 204 to 66. Henry felt so strongly on the matter that he became over animated during the debate on his motion and he was suspended from Parliament for a week.

 Finally...

Thus the Cleveland Street Scandal passed into history and ceased to be a matter of contemporary significance, however, from evidence that has since become available, it now appears that the Duke of Clarence was indeed a likely client of the Cleveland Street brothel. If indeed it were true, it would be very likely that some kind of damage limitation exercise was carried out at the highest levels of the British Government to protect him.

I grateful acknowledge the following works used in my research:

The Cleveland Street Affair - Colin Simpson, Lewis Chester & David Leitch
The Cleveland Street Scandal - H Montgomery Hyde
Cleveland Street 'The Musical' - Glenn Chandler & Matt Devereaux


Inside story: 19 Cleveland Street
Officially, this house no longer exists, thanks to an 'indescribably loathsome scandal'. But Matthew Gwyther finds life goes on there


IF you wander up and down Cleveland Street in the fashionable Fitzrovia area of London, you will look in vain for Number 19. Officially, it no longer exists. This is because the house was once the venue for one of the most notorious sleaze stories in late-Victorian England and was quietly removed from the Land Register.

"Den of infamy": Lord Arthur Somerset, at the heart of the Fitzrovia based scandal
The "indescribably loathsome scandal", as one newspaper called it, began in the late summer of 1889 when PC 718, Luke Hanks of the General Post Office's own police force, stopped and interviewed a 15-year-old telegraph boy called Charles Swinscow, who worked at St Martin's Le Grand and who had been found carrying 18 shillings. This was the equivalent of two months' wages, and he was immediately accused of stealing.
Swinscow protested that he had earned the money by "going to bed with gentlemen" at the rate of four shillings a time at Number 19. He revealed that several other telegraph boys did the same thing to supplement their wages.
Scotland Yard put the house under watch and confirmed that "a number of men of superior bearing and apparently good position" were frequent visitors. When they finally raided Number 19, the owner, Charles Hammond, had already fled to France after a tip-off. (Hammond pocketed the other 16 shillings of each sovereign that customers paid for the boys' services.)
Some of the men calling at the house were, indeed, of good position, and when word got out of their identity, the scandal began. They were said to include Lord Arthur Somerset, son of the Duke of Beaufort, the Earl of Euston and a Colonel Jervoise from Winchester. Worse, was the speculation that Prince Albert Victor, or Prince Eddy, eldest son of the Prince of Wales, was another visitor.
Although his name was never mentioned in the British press, the American and French newspapers discussed his alleged involvement quite openly. The affair was to cause the Prime Minister, Lord Salisbury, no end of embarrassment.
The evidence against Lord Arthur was strong. The police had letters to him from one of the prostitutes and several statements from other boys. He was allowed to escape to Vienna and resigned from the Guards and the royal household. He died in France in 1926.
The events at the "den of infamy", as the Illustrated Police News termed the establishment in Cleveland Street, led to three trials. One was for commissioning acts of impropriety; one for libel, in which the Earl of Euston sued Ernest Parke, the editor of The North London Press (circulation 4,500), for defaming him; and one for conspiracy to pervert the course of justice because witnesses were spirited out of the country.
At the first trial, Henry Newlove and George Veck (who had tried to escape dressed as a vicar) were found guilty of procurement but received light sentences of less than a year. (Within a decade, Oscar Wilde was to be sentenced to two years' hard labour for similar offences.)
During the second trial, Euston claimed in the box that he had attended the house in the belief that he was going to watch heterosexual poses plastiques, or the Victorian version of a strip show. Despite some compelling evidence in his favour, Parke received 12 months in jail, which the Victorian writer Frank Harris described as "infamous and vindictive". Prince Eddy was sent off to India on a lengthy tour of duty.
The renumbered house is now divided into three flats, and Flat Two - where the bedrooms used to be - is owned by a German chef, Michael von Hruschka. He is the boss at The Birdcage in nearby Whitfield Street and has been hailed by Vogue as one of London's leading exponents of "Bohoco", or bohemian cool. Typical menus at his restaurant might include deep-fried maggots, crickets and scorpions served with a soy sauce dip.
Unfortunately, Mr von Hruschka has injured his back and finds it nearly impossible to stand for long periods at his stove. So his two-bedroom flat is now for sale. It is fairly small, the kitchen is contained in an alcove off the living room and the carpets need a clean, but the asking price for this blue plaque-free piece of history is a cool £280,000 - about double its value two years ago. Such prices are not uncommon for Noho (north of Soho) or Fitzrovia, which has been hailed as "the new Docklands" by some, although the view from this section of Cleveland Street is restricted to the wall of University College Hospital.
Mr von Hruschka's business partner, Caroline Faulkner, from whom he bought the place, acknowledges that the area is a "very-on-the-edge sort of place. It's still a bit seedy". But as an added incentive, the purchaser will get a free meal for two at The Birdcage.
The flat can be viewed through Foxtons in Mayfair on 020 7973 2000.

Tuesday, 25 November 2014

BEATON AT BROOK STREET.


BEATON AT BROOK STREET

Celebrated photographer, award-winning theatre and costume designer, illustrator, diarist, dandy and intimate of royalty – interest in Cecil Beaton and his world is greater than ever. Andrew Ginger, who with his company Beaudesert, curated the highly acclaimed Cecil Beaton exhibition at Salisbury Museum this summer, has collaborated with Sibyl Colefax & John Fowler to create ‘BEATON at BROOK STREET’ at their historic Mayfair premises.

CECIL BEATON AT HOME – TOWN & COUNTRY will be presented in The Yellow Room, contrasting Beaton’s London home, Pelham Place, with Ashcombe and Reddish, his Wiltshire country houses, through vivid room set recreations which reunite many of Beaton’s previously unseen photographs, artworks and possessions.

The exhibition also marks the launch of a new book, CECIL BEATON: PORTRAITS AND PROFILES, by Hugo Vickers, Beaton’s official biographer and literary executor. There will be a themed display throughout the Brook Street showrooms of photographs from the book, together with other portraits and artworks from private lenders, which have never been exhibited before.

Many rare and unique photographs are included from The Cecil Beaton Studio Archive at Sotheby’s, who have generously supported this exhibition.

18 November to 5 December 2014, Monday to Friday, 9.30am – 5.30pm

Sibyl Colefax & John Fowler Ltd, 39 Brook Street, Mayfair, London, W1K 4JE

ADMISSION FREE

Cecil Beaton Self Portrait 1938

© The Cecil Beaton Studio Archive, Sotheby’s


This beautiful collection of fabulous photographs and incisive pen portraits captures the world of Cecil Beaton, one of the most celebrated portrait photographers of the twentieth century.

Cecil Beaton: Portraits and Profiles combines Beaton’s photographic and pen portraits. Beaton’s portraits offer insight, beauty, witty observations and a fascinating glimpse into his world. His images often flattered but his diaries and journals didn’t necessarily follow suit and he was described by Jean Cocteau as ‘Malice in Wonderland’. 

Included are stars of music, fashion, society, stage and screen. From Mick Jagger and Andy Warhol, Coco Chanel and Princess Grace through to Greta Garbo, Elizabeth Taylor and Pablo Picasso and Salvador Dali.

Of Audrey Hepburn, Beaton said ‘she is like a portrait by Modigliani where the various distortions are not only interesting in themselves but make a completely satisfying composite’.

Marilyn Monroe ‘romps, she squeals with delight, she leaps on the sofa. It is an artless, impromptu, high-spirited, infectiously gay performance. It will probably end in tears’.

Marlon Brando was ‘pallid as a mushroom, smooth-skinned and scarred, with curved feminine lips and silky hair, he seems as unhealthy as a lame duck. Yet his ram-like profile has the harsh strength of the gutter’

Cecil Beaton’s life spanned many worlds and these are captured here through his fabulous photographs and incisive observations.

Hackett London Men's Fall/Winter 2014 2015 Full Fashion Show.

Hackett was founded in 1979 by Jeremy Hackett and Ashley Lloyd-Jennings from a stall on London's Portobello Road. The first shop, on the "wrong end" of King's Road, in London Chelsea district, was selling only used clothes.

The company gradually expanded over several years, increasing the number of branches and moving from acquiring and selling second-hand clothing to designing and selling its own items. International expansion began with the 1989 opening of a Spanish branch in Madrid.

Alfred Dunhill bought a majority stake in the company in 1992. This cash injection facilitated the opening of the flagship store in Sloane Street the same year. This branch remains the largest and most comprehensive of the UK shops.

In June 2005, Richemont sold Hackett Limited to the Spanish investment company Torreal S.C.R., S.A..Since then, Hackett has continued to expand internationally and now operates from 77 stores in sixteen countries across the globe.

As well as expanding geographically, the company has increased its range of services. As well as manufacturing and selling clothing items, Hackett offers personal and bespoke tailoring, a range of spectacles, grooming products, and a barbers in their flagship store in Sloane Street, London.

Hackett appointed American creative director Michael Sondag, who joined Hackett from Tommy Hilfiger in 2005.

Sunday, 23 November 2014

John Lobb: Paula Gerbase named new creative director

HERITAGE

John Lobb has been making the finest shoes and boots for gentlemen since 1866 in London and 1902 in Paris. Its rich heritage is reinforced by timeless qualities of craftsmanship, service and style - attributes that are now available to a wider international John Lobb audience. The company continues to maintain its bespoke shoe-making tradition in Paris, while also retaining core bespoke principles in the manufacture of its expanding ready-to-wear collection of shoes and leather goods.

John Lobb Bootmaker has been in business for almost 150 years - and prides itself on upholding its exacting standards and unique levels of craftsmanship in the creation of hand-made shoes and boots for men.

John Lobb himself was born in 1829 in Cornwall, south-west England, but made his way to London as a young man as an apprentice bootmaker. Following a successful period in Australia making boots for the miners of the gold rush, he returned to London to set up his first shop on Regent Street in 1866.

John Lobb rapidly established itself as the premier boot and shoemaker of the day, providing a bespoke service to the aristocracy, as well as the political and business elite. In 1902 the company opened its first store in Paris, which echoed its London success and attracted a broad array of international clients. The company thrived in the post-war era with the launch of a number of classic models such as the William 'monk' shoe and the Lopez loafer.

In 1976, John Lobb was acquired by the Hermès Group. However, the London bespoke workshop, John Lobb Ltd, remained in the hands of the family, and continues to operate independently from its premises at 9 St James's Street. The Paris bespoke atelier, the By Request service and ready-to-wear collection, as well as all the other John Lobb boutiques, are all part of the Hermès-owned company.

Shortly after acquiring the company, Hermès recognised the demand for a John Lobb ready-to-wear collection of men's shoes, as Lobbs were only available to bespoke customers, limiting access to a privileged few.In 1982 the debut ready-to-wear collection was launched, with the first store showcasing the RTW line opening in Paris in 1990.

In 1994, John Lobb opened its Northampton workshop, where today, the ready-to-wear line is designed and made by hand, a London boutique followed on Jermyn Street. Over the last decade, the company has expanded its retail presence across the globe with stores in major cities in the US, Europe, the Middle East and Asia.

The ultimate John Lobb bespoke service is still available from the Paris atelier, now based on 32 rue de Mogador. Meanwhile the ready-to-wear collection retains the core bespoke qualities of John Lobb in its 190-step manufacturing process for each pair of shoes. The collection includes all the iconic classics, as well as fresh seasonal additions and new models, such as the Driver by John Lobb, which reflect contemporary lifestyles and international audiences.

All its shoes retain the timeless traditions of John Lobb: exceptional quality, fine craftsmanship, comfort, durability and elegance.
Gerbase studied womenswear at Central Saint Martins and trained in the womenswear atelier of Hardy Amies, followed by 5 years as Head Designer for Savile Row tailor, Kilgour.
Paula Gerbase, a 32-year-old fashion designer, was appointed in June as Lobb's artistic director. Credit Tom Jamieson for The New York Times

John Lobb Spruces Up Its Classic Footwear

At John Lobb, the 148-year-old British company known for the $1,700 oxfords that have trod boardrooms from New York to Hong Kong, change has arrived in the form of Paula Gerbase, a London fashion designer known for her slightly esoteric tailored clothing line, 1205.

She has never before designed shoes.

So established an institution is Lobb that when Ms. Gerbase, 32, was named in June as the company’s first artistic director, it was the talk not only of the shoe world, but also of the broader luxury fashion industry.

As the market for men’s wear has exploded — with growth, by some estimates, now outpacing women’s wear — companies have sought to attract new customers and galvanize existing ones, often by refurbishing once-staid images.

To its admirers around the world, the Lobb name denotes tradition and heritage in men’s formal and custom-made footwear. (Its bespoke studio in Paris also has a small clientele of women.) The company, its collections, its factory in Northampton, England, and its Paris studio have been owned since 1976 by Hermès, but the original London bespoke workshop operates independently and is family owned.

For well-paid executives who appreciate footwear priced in four figures, John Lobb is a benchmark, which is why Ms. Gerbase’s appointment has drawn attention.

“I’m not surprised you are surprised,” Renaud Paul-Dauphin, the chief executive of John Lobb, said the other day. The point of hiring Ms. Gerbase, he said, was “to bring modernity and, really, a creative vision to John Lobb, which is not traditional for a classic British brand.”
The business shoe as embodied by Lobb has been about craftsmanship and luxury. Its leather is cut in large pieces; the less expensive method is to stitch together small ones. And Lobb’s blocked heel is also a seamless design.

While such details scarcely register with the untrained eye, to connoisseurs, they justify the Lobb price tag, which can run into five figures for shoes made with exotic skins. The company says that 190 manufacturing steps are required for each pair of shoes.

With her label, 1205, Ms. Gerbase made her name as the designer of a highly regarded niche collection of men’s and women’s wear.

She creates beautifully cut jackets and trousers in unusual fabrics that she personally develops with the textile mills that are her suppliers. Wearing a workman’s jumpsuit of her own design, Ms. Gerbase received a reporter this fall at the tucked-away gallery space in Paris that she reserves each fashion week to show her clothing to buyers.

Ms. Gerbase cited quality and understatement as “the things that attract me to John Lobb,” adding that “elegance can be translated in lots of different ways that aren’t necessarily a business shoe.”

As businesspeople are changing, so are their fashion preferences, shoes included. As with other parts of the wardrobe, the boundary between formal footwear and more casual styles is more porous than it once was.

“It’s definitely blurred,” said Luke Mountain, the buying manager for men’s formal wear, casual, denim and footwear at Selfridges department stores in the United Kingdom, which carry John Lobb. “There’s no more that ‘work shoe’ and ‘going out’ shoe.”

The most pronounced swing of the pendulum took place at Berluti, the former boutique shoemaker now owned by LVMH Moët Hennessy Louis Vuitton. In 2011, the company appointed an artistic director, Alessandro Sartori, who rolled out a fashion collection, opened stores worldwide and began to show his designs on the runway at Paris Fashion Week. There, every look was accessorized with a $1,580 sneaker called, significantly enough, Playtime.

Ms. Gerbase, who will continue to design the 1205 label, said she had no interest in creating a clothing collection for John Lobb — or in feeding the growing market for luxury sneakers.

But she has been given the task of modernizing Lobb, implicitly to compete for the same customers who flock to Berluti. The two companies have stores some five blocks away from each other on Madison Avenue in New York.

Steven Taffel, an owner of Leffot, a shoe store in New York that specializes in established labels including John Lobb, has also noticed that rules for business footwear are not as rigid as before.

“It’s definitely loosened up,” he said. “Even companies that are old, like Edward Green, they’re coming out with new colors of leathers, new designs, new shapes, new lasts that are contemporary. The guys are responding to it.”

Ms. Gerbase is well suited to straddle the divide between fashion and traditional craftsmanship. She studied women’s wear at Central Saint Martins in London, known for minting many of fashion’s pathbreaking talents, including Alexander McQueen, John Galliano, Stella McCartney and Christopher Kane.

But, hungry for a more traditional grounding than Saint Martins provided, she found her way in 2005 to an apprenticeship at Hardy Amies, a tailor on Savile Row, London’s street of the bespoke, before going on to Kilgour, another Savile Row house. She left in 2010 to start her own collection.

Ms. Gerbase now shows her 1205 collections each February and September during London Fashion Week. Last month, she was nominated for a British Fashion Award for emerging women’s wear designer.

For John Lobb, she has chosen to look forward by looking back.

John Lobb, born in 1829, was a farmer’s son. He left his native Cornwall — on foot — for London, and eventually Australia, before wending his way back to Europe.

Mr. Lobb’s peripatetic career resonated with Ms. Gerbase, who was born in Brazil and lived in the United States and Switzerland before settling in London. She visited Cornwall and made part of Mr. Lobb’s walk to London, more than 200 miles northeast, to put herself, literally, in his shoes.

Her first Lobb collection, to be shown in January in London during men’s fashion week, was inspired by the sights and colors she saw along the way.

Details of the new collection are still closely guarded. But Ms. Gerbase said a number of casual shoes in the Lobb archive — a tennis shoe from the 1920s, a walking boot from the 1940s — informed her direction. She said the company had given her “complete freedom, which is pretty much unheard-of.”

Merchants predict that Ms. Gerbase’s changes will be more evolutionary than revolutionary.

“I don’t think they’re going to do anything to upset the apple cart,” said Mr. Taffel of Leffot in New York.

Ms. Gerbase, for her part, sees it all as part of the evolving 21st-century economy.


“Jobs are changing, the uniforms are changing as well,” she said. “Having modernity in a more formal shoe — I think that’s quite exciting.”

Renaud Paul-Dauphin, the chief executive of John Lobb






Friday, 21 November 2014

Just Fashion, NOT Style. Is lumbersexual a real thing? Or is it a joke?

Lumbersexual is your Tinder date, sipping craft beer at an underground bar with his sad eyes and permanently unrealised dream of living in an isolated woodland shack.’ Photograph: Stockrocket/Getty Images

Out of the woods, here he comes: the lumbersexual
Though big of beard and clad in plaid, the latest male fashion hero has probably never been near a sawmill. But that doesn’t make him a fake
Holly Baxter

Just when we all thought we’d reached peak beard, a surprising development has happened in the fascinating world of male grooming. Yes, you guessed it (you probably didn’t guess it) – the lumbersexual is here, with his beard, plaid shirt, backpack and artfully scruffy hair barely contained by his sensible woollen hat.

He’s your Tinder date, sipping craft beer at an underground bar with his sad eyes and permanently unrealised dream of living in an isolated woodland shack. He’s your new boyfriend, who used to share a four-cheese pizza with you in bed after a long day, and who now looks like an extra who wandered out of the forest in Game of Thrones. Hell, he could even be the groom on your hipster wedding day.

We may have only just been given a great new portmanteau term for the type, but the lumbersexual has been here for a while. I know more than one urban-dwelling man who has suddenly acquired some sort of rurally themed weaponry in the last six months (axes, bows and arrows, tiny knives that they use to open beer cans at parties). And I’ve noticed that if you walk around certain areas for long enough, the proliferation of plaid (on plaid on plaid) will eventually make you feel as though you are living your life inside an optical illusion.

But the question on everybody’s lips, as with most new trends, is: guys, is this OK? Is it fine for my friend to adorn his walls with old bear traps he bought on eBay when he had to give up carving the Christmas turkey last year because it “looked too real”? Is there a problem with wrapping yourself up in a heavy duty woodsman’s jacket for your minimally hazardous commute from Peckham to the Apple store Genius Bar?

Is there something fundamentally wrong with calling yourself rugged when you actually spent 20 minutes of your morning delicately trimming your beard in the bathroom mirror? Or should we cut these guys some slack (preferably using a vintage hatchet from Colorado?)

Although I personally have spent too many dates fearing that the froth from the latest craft beer will get stuck in my lumbersexual admirer’s facial hair and make it look like a sponge, I find myself cautiously defensive of the trend. Posers they may be, but surely lumbersexuals don’t seriously think we believe that their pulled pork sandwiches are made from wild boar they slew in the communal garden behind their high-rise apartments. Instead, this so-called reaction to the unashamedly feminine metrosexual seems to me all about playing with gender stereotypes.

I like the poseur who sits beside me at a nauseatingly hip cafe with his cold brew, Barbour jacket and anchor tattoos – I can’t deny it. He isn’t telling me he’s anything but a freelance web designer who can grow an impressively bushy moustache. He isn’t sitting at home, crying over his laptop and wondering why he can’t just get out there and be a “real man”. Instead, he’s playing with the concept of what masculinity looks like and does. He is at the same time both aggressively attached to the traditionally masculine look and completely removed from the lifestyle that it advertises.

Men are given a harder time than women when they play with gender through style, since fashion still isn’t seen as their rightful domain. The metrosexual threw caution to the wind and started carrying his moisturiser round in his manbag; the lumbersexual now serves us up a hypermasculine aesthetic with an unashamedly ironic grin.

Did the lumbersexual, as accused, steal his look from the gay world of “bears” and “cubs”? It seems likely. As Tim Teeman at the Daily Beast says, “First, straights came for the smooth, pretty gay look … and now you have come for our hairier brethren.” Those who questioned straight culture in the first place were always better at laughing at gender, after all. Now that we can all share in the joy of metros, lumbersexuals and the “metrojacks”(who fall in the middle – yes, really), I am all too happy to laugh along.


Lumbersexual adorns his wall with bear traps despite being unable to carve a turkey because it looks ‘too real’. Photograph: Sunny Miller/Corbis

"Is there a problem with wrapping yourself up in a heavy duty woodsman’s jacket for your minimally hazardous commute from Peckham to the Apple store Genius Bar?
Is lumbersexual a real thing? Or is it a joke?


Rise Of The Lumbersexual | Wranglerstar