Sunday 30 October 2022

A Secret Dram by Stewart Christie & Co

REMEMBERING: A new future for Stewart Christie & Co Ltd

A new future for Stewart Christie & Co Ltd

On the 14th of August 2015 there will be a change in ownership of Edinburgh's oldest bespoke tailors.

Established in 1720, the company evolved over time, finally amalgamating to form Stewart Christie & Co Ltd. in 1933.

For the past 44 years the business has been owned and managed by Mr Duncan Lowe, who is the fourth generation of his family to work there as a merchant tailor. Mr Lowe was brought into the business by his father when in his early twenties, and has driven the business forward over time, carefully maintaining the company reputation as the premier Edinburgh bespoke tailor, country outfitter and supplier of sporting clothes and highland wear.

Ensuring the future of the business has been of chief concern to the owner, and this has now been achieved with the sale of Stewart Christie to Edinburgh based trio Dan Fearn, Vixy Rae and David Bassett - after an initial introduction made through the Incorporation of Edinburgh Tailors. Continuing to serve as a director of the firm will be Terence McClelland – head cutter and tailor who has been with the company nearly 20 years. “Continuity within the company through retaining skilled and experienced staff is important for all of us”, assert the new owners, adding “so too is the fact we can continue to call on Mr Lowe during the inevitable period of transition.”

Formerly lead designers at Walker Slater, both Victoria and Daniel with over 20yrs experience, have admired the heritage and reputation of the company for many years,

"It is a once in a lifetime opportunity to take on and grow a businesslong established as Edinburgh's premier bespoke tailors" enthuses Daniel, "we all feel an immense sense of pride embarking on this journey, together with support from Mr Lowe, and it is an honour tobe custodians of such a long respected company."

The new team will be taking the company forward into the 21st century, by enhancing the store, establishing online retail, and developing a luxury own label brand.

"We all have a very similar work ethic and a common vision," comments Vixy, "developing Stewart Christie as a luxury brand, using local fabrics and British manufacture, we will celebrate and support Scottish and British craftsmanship in as many lines as we can." Existing brands will be balanced by increased own label product and new niche brands sought, to create a unique emporium for both ladies and gentlemen.

The company, housed in a Georgian building in the heart of Edinburgh’s New Town (a UNESCO listed World Heritage Site) offers two floors of retail space in addition to the all important workroom, cutting bench and offices. The lower ground floor sales area will undergo a complete renovation and refit, and when ready, will accommodate the new ladies wear collection and bespoke service. The ground floor will be reconfigured over time to encompass the classical ideas of a gentleman's tailor and outfitter. "We will retain as much of the character as possible, and reference the origins of the company, making full use of the archives we possess" adds David, "the historically important archive resources will also be used in the development of the Stewart Christie brand and will be a source of inspiration for us all. It is important to update the company, whilst remaining faithful to traditional techniques and craftsmanship and embracing the unique heritage Stewart Christie boasts."

A wholesale collection of country inspired clothing but with a contemporary twist will be ready for viewing in the Spring of 2016.


A new future for Edinburgh landmark

One of Edinburgh’s oldest classic menswear stores and bespoke tailors, Stewart Christie & Co, is under new ownership.

Daniel Fearn and Vixy Rae, ex-designers at independent retailer Walker Slater in the Scottish capital, and former colleague and customer David Bassett have acquired the business from Duncan Lowe, who has run it for 37 years.

Lowe was the fourth generation of his family to manage the company, which traces its roots back to 1700. It was amalgamated as Stewart Christie & Co in 1933.

The business is recognised as Edinburgh’s leading bespoke tailor, country outfitter and supplier of sporting clothes and Highland wear. Head cutter Terence McClelland, who has been with the company for nearly 20 years, will continue as a director.

“Continuity within the company through retaining skilled and experienced staff is important for all of us. So too is the fact we can continue to call on Duncan Lowe during the inevitable period of transition,” the new owners said in a statement. Financial details were not revealed.

The new team intends to enhance the store, establish a transactional website this autumn and develop own-label products. “We all have a very similar work ethic and a common vision,” Rae told Drapers. “Developing Stewart Christie as a luxury brand, using local fabrics and British manufacture, we will celebrate and support Scottish and British craftsmanship in as many lines as we can.”

Existing brands, such as Gurteen, Bladen, Dubarry and Cheaney will be balanced by more own-label product. New niche brands for men and women will be sought.

Stewart Christie, located in a Georgian building at 63 Queen Street in the heart of Edinburgh’s New Town (a UNESCO World Heritage Site), operates across two floors of retail space in addition to the bespoke workroom, cutting bench and offices. It employs two shop staff, four in the workroom and a book keeper.

The lower ground floor sales area will undergo a complete renovation and refit to accommodate a new women’s collection. Currently womenswear accounts for only 5% of sales, but the intention is to increase this to 30%.

The ground floor is to be reconfigured in due course. “We will retain as much of the character as possible, and reference the origins of the company, making full use of the archives we possess,” said Bassett. “These historically important archive resources will be used in the development of the Stewart Christie brand and will be a source of inspiration for us all.

“It is important to update the company, while remaining faithful to traditional techniques and craftsmanship and embracing the unique heritage Stewart Christie boasts.”

It is intended that a wholesale collection of country-inspired clothing with a contemporary twist will be shown to buyers in spring 2016.

Fearn worked for Walker Slater for 15 years. Rae worked there for five years. Before that she owned the Odd One Out boutique in Edinburgh and streetwear store Dr Jives in Glasgow.

Friday 28 October 2022

12th Duke of Atholl BBC / The 12th, 11th and 10th Dukes of Atholl.

Bruce George Ronald Murray, 12th Duke of Atholl OStJ (born 5/6 April 1960), is a South African-born hereditary peer in the Peerage of Scotland and Chief of Clan Murray.As Duke of Atholl, he has the right to raise Europe's only legal private army, the Atholl Highlanders, a unique privilege granted to his family by Queen Victoria after visiting Blair Atholl in 1844.


The elder son of John Murray, 11th Duke of Atholl, and Margaret Yvonne née Leach, now styled the Dowager Duchess of Atholl, graduated from Jeppe High School for Boys Johannesburg in 1979. He was educated at Saasveld Forestry College before serving his two years' National Service with the South African Infantry Corps. He is currently a volunteer member of the Transvaal Scottish Regiment, holding the rank of lieutenant. Previously he managed a tea plantation, but then ran a signage business producing signs for commercial buildings.He was commissioned into the Atholl Highlanders in 2000, being appointed as lieutenant colonel. Upon the death of his father on 15 May 2012, he succeeded to all his father's titles, becoming the 12th Duke of Atholl.


The Duke first married on 4 February 1984, in Johannesburg, to Lynne Elizabeth Andrew (born Johannesburg, 7 June 1963), daughter of Nicholas George Andrew of Bedfordview, South Africa (born Brighton, East Sussex, June 1939) and wife Evelyn Donne de Villiers, and they divorced in 2003. Together they had three children, two sons and one daughter:


Michael Bruce John Murray, Marquess of Tullibardine (born Louis Trichardt, 5 March 1985)

Lord David Nicholas George Murray (born Louis Trichardt, 31 January 1986)

Lady Nicole Murray (born Duiwelskloof, 11 July 1987); married to Peter Piek

He married secondly Charmaine Myrna du Toit in 2009, without issue.


Obituary: John Murray, 11th Duke of Atholl, retired South African surveyor who inherited one of Scotland’s most ancient titles

Born: 19 January, 1929, in Johannesburg. Died: 15 May, 2012, near Haenertsburg, South Africa, aged


By The Newsroom

19th May 2012, 1:00am


ALTHOUGH of distant Scots origin, John Murray was a retired South African land surveyor in his mid-60s when he was informed he had inherited one of Scotland’s most ancient titles, Duke of Atholl. That also made him, overnight, chief of the Clan Murray and Colonel-in-Chief of Europe’s only legal private army, the Atholl Highlanders infantry regiment, as well as giving him umpteen other courtesy titles within the Scottish peerage, from Balquhidder to Glenalmond. His son Bruce, also very much a South African, suddenly became Marquess of Tullibardine, the Perthshire area now perhaps best known for its single malt distillery.


Until John Murray took over his new titles in 1996, he had only rarely had a dram and never owned a kilt. Throughout his life, he had thought little, if at all, of the fact that he was a distant (third) cousin of Iain Murray, the tenth Duke of Atholl and chief of Clan Murray who lived in the 13th-century Blair Castle, Perthshire, with its 120,000-acre estate. The South African surveyor knew of the distant relationship and had visited the castle once, in 1994, but the distant family connection was never a factor in his life until the tenth Duke passed away in 1996.


Even after being told he had inherited the historic titles, the 11th Duke continued to live in quiet retirement in a South African mountain village, preferring the South African sun to the damp of Scottish castles. He did, however, visit Scotland once a year to carry out his ceremonial duties.


These included inspecting the annual parade of the Atholl Highlanders, made up of 85 local men and officers, at the family’s historic seat, Blair Castle, before presiding over the traditional Blair Atholl Highland Games in the nearby village.


In full Highland dress, and with his wife, the Duchess Peggy, by his side, he did so every year to the delight of the locals until ill health forced him to miss last year’s gathering. This year’s parade and gathering will go ahead next weekend as planned, with the castle’s flags at half-mast as a sign of respect, and a memorial service added.


Locals hope the new, 12th, Duke, John’s son Bruce, will come over from South Africa to fulfil the traditional role.


Despite all the titles, and the extent of the Atholl estates, the 11th Duke inherited no land. The tenth Duke, affectionately and teasingly dubbed “wee Iain” in the Scottish media because he stood 6’ 5” in his garter-flash stocking soles, had handed the 120-room castle and estates over to a charitable trust a year before he died.


Some say the canny “wee Iain” was miffed that the historic Scottish estate was about to get into the hands of a distant cousin in South Africa who might see it as “a commercial concern, not a home”. John Murray, the 11th Duke, insisted he had never considered turning the estate into a commercial concern but he certainly never got the chance to and it now belongs to the Blair Charitable Trust, with Blair Castle a major tourist attraction and relatives of the 10th Duke among the trustees. It is popular for Highland banquets, balls, weddings and other functions. “I never harboured any aspirations to inherit the estate,” the 11th Duke later said.


“I am happy that the land has gone into a charitable trust. I have a simple lifestyle and will not make myself ridiculous with a title that does not fit my scene. It means nothing in South Africa … I have Scottish blood in my veins, but no Scottish culture … I respect and honour Scotland as the land of my origins, but I would never want to live there. I am a South African, not a Scotsman. My heart and my mind are in this country (South Africa).”


With the castle part of a trust, and open to the public, the popularity of the 11th Duke and Duchess Peggy was such that they were often invited to stay in private homes during their visits to Scotland.


To many Scots historians, and non-Murray clansmen with long memories, the Dukes of Atholl will forever be remembered most for being among the first large landowners to launch the Highland Clearances in the 19th century, evicting crofters and their families in favour of sheep.


It was a legacy difficult to live down thereafter – many Atholl crofters were forced to emigrate to the colonies – but the new South African Duke of the 1990s quickly won over the locals in his historic homeland through his humility and dedication to his ceremonial role.


He pledged to maintain Atholl traditions, notably to retain the Atholl Highlanders, mainly as a tourist attraction. The regiment was founded in 1844 after Queen Victoria, said to have partaken freely of the local whisky, mixed with a fine French claret as was her English wont, gave the Duke of the time a unique licence to form his own private army, one that need not be beholden to the army of Great Britain.


Although the Atholl Highlanders are composed mainly of locals from the Blair Atholl area, the late Duke recently recruited his South African grandson, who held the titles Master of Tullibardine and Earl of Strathtay and Strathardle, into the regiment.


John Murray was born in Johannesburg in 1929, the only child of Major George Murray and Joan Eastwood. His father died in active service during the Second World War, when John was 11 years old.


After gaining a degree in engineering at the University of the Witwatersrand in Johannesburg, he got his first job as a land surveyor, the career he would follow all his life.


In 1956, he married Margaret “Peggy” Leach, who would become a reflexologist, and they would go on to have three children, including, in 1960, a baby called Bruce.


Who could have imagined that a South African baby called Bruce would one day become the 12th Duke of Atholl, chief of the Clan Murray, colonel-in-chief of the Atholl Highlanders?


“His Grace” (as protocol required him to be addressed) the 11th Duke of Atholl is survived by his wife Margaret (“Peggy”), children Bruce, Craig and Jennifer, and seven grandchildren.


Iain Murray, 10th Duke of Atholl

George Iain Murray, 10th Duke of Atholl, DL (19 June 1931 – 27 February 1996), known as Wee Iain, was a Scottish peer and landowner.


Background and education

Murray was the only surviving child of Lieutenant-Colonel George Anthony Murray (1907–1945), who was killed in action in the Second World War, and the Honourable Angela Pearson (1910–1981), daughter of The 2nd Viscount Cowdray. He was a great-grandson of Sir George Murray, grandson of the Right Reverend George Murray, son of the Right Reverend Lord George Murray, second son of The 3rd Duke of Atholl, who in turn was eldest son of renowned Scottish Jacobite Lord George Murray. Through his American great-grandfather, Brigadier General Daniel M. Frost of the Confederate States Army, he was a descendant of the Winthrop family and a distant cousin to former Secretary of State John Kerry.


He attended both Eton and Christ Church, Oxford, before succeeding the 9th duke, his fourth cousin twice removed, as 10th Duke of Atholl in 1957.[1] With a height of six feet, five inches, he was one of the tallest Scottish peers, leading to the whimsical name of "Wee Iain".


Public life

Atholl inherited an estate of approximately 120,000 acres (496 km2)—although this was a decline from the 190,000 acres (769 km2) in the 19th century, it was still a smaller decline than many other Scottish estates. Under his stewardship, the estate in and around Blair Castle became a significant area for tourism and forestry, on which he was an acknowledged expert and spoke many times in the House of Lords, having been elected a Scottish Representative Peer in 1958.[1] In addition, he resurrected the Atholl Highlanders, the ceremonial private army of the dukedom composed of estate workers and family friends, as a tourist attraction.


He was an active member of the Conservative Monday Club. He also held several business appointments, notably as Chairman of BPM Holdings between 1972 and 1983 and of Westminster Press Group between 1974 and 1996 and as a director of Pearson Longman between 1975 and 1983. In 1980 he was appointed a deputy lieutenant of Perth and Kinross.


Personal life

Atholl died unmarried in February 1996, aged 64, with the titles passing to his second cousin, once removed, John Murray, a South African land surveyor.[1] The day before the death of the 10th Duke, it was announced that he had given Blair Castle and most of his estates to a charitable trust, thus effectively disinheriting his heir. The new duke had indicated he had little interest in leaving South Africa, and though he honoured the land of his origins, said: "I am a South African, not a Scotsman."

Wednesday 26 October 2022

House of Bruar - Explore the House of Bruar



Since we opened in 1995, our store has continued to grow and expand into what we are today. We are proud to hold our values close and hope they meet our customer expectations.



Our roots are defined by a rural lifestyle, and if you want to build your country wardrobe then you will feel right at home.



We are passionate about supporting local businesses, and we are extremely committed to working with some of the last UK's remaining woollen mills.



Producing the highest quality garments is our focus throughout the design process. We work tirelessly to ensure you get the best product at an affordable price.



Our location at the gateway to the Scottish Highlands is hugely influential to our brand. We are proud to reflect this beautiful country and its people.



Family is at the heart of our business, and extends throughout all those who have worked for us and still with us. As the business grows, so does the House of Bruar family.

The UK’s Leading Scottish Country Clothing Specialist

The House of Bruar’s clothing collection offers a wide range of high-quality items that all share a distinct sense of refined rural style. From time-honoured tweeds to high-performance modern outdoorswear that can handle the worst excesses of the Scottish weather, our selection covers the full spectrum of country clothing, ensuring you’re always admirably equipped whatever the situation.


And if you’re looking for something a little more casual, you’ll find a full complement of smart yet comfortable sweaters, cardigans and slipovers masterfully crafted in luxury textiles including cashmere, merino and lambswool awaiting you, all finished to the usual high standards you’ve come to expect from the House of Bruar.


In addition to the many items produced exclusively for us under our own House of Bruar label, our country clothing range also includes selected items from premium outdoor clothing brands including Barbour, Jack Wolfskin, Musto, Aigle and Schoffel - these manufacturers consistently produce world-class men’s country clothing that delivers outstanding performance in the field, and we’re proud to include these prestigious brands at the heart of our country clothing collection.



Clothes Pitlochry Perthshire

The House of Bruar is widely acknowledged as Scotland’s most prestigious independent store, and its regal stature at the gateway to the Highlands makes it clear to see why.


Situated on the A9, a short drive north of Pitlochry, The House of Bruar offers an extensive range of high quality products in both the Men’s and Ladies clothing halls. There is also a taste of luxury from gourmet produce, artisan treats and a fine selection of whisky and spirits in the Food Hall – which also homes the award winning in-store butchery and delicatessen.


Housing the largest collection of Cashmere in the UK, you will be spoilt for choice in the Knitwear hall – which carries a large variety of high quality natural fibres. The use of natural fibres extends further into their ample offerings of Tweed garments and accessories, reflecting the Scottish heritage within the brand.


The Country Living and Present Shop departments carry plenty of choice for decorating your home, or even the perfect gift. It’s the home of country style all under one roof. Take a stroll through the Art Gallery, where work is displayed from up and coming artists who have a firm interest in Scottish wildlife and scenery within their art.


Should you be looking for a spot of lunch during your visit, then don’t miss the Restaurant – which serves up a variety of meals including a full roast provided by the Butchery, delicious soups, sandwiches, enticing cakes and a selection of meals cooked to order. All of these can be enjoyed in the heated conservatory so you can take pleasure in sitting outdoors, whatever the weather.


The House of Bruar attracts visitors from all over to its captivating grounds and no trip to Scotland would be complete without a visit.


 Getting Here: Car

The House of Bruar is situated off the A9, approximately 10 miles north of Pitlochry in Perthshire. Take the exit for "Bruar B8079/House of Bruar". If you are using a Sat Nav, our postcode is PH18 5TW


You can travel to the House of Bruar using the Stagecoach 83 or 87 bus route to Calvine/Old Struan which departs from the West End Car Park in Pitlochry. Bus links are limited in rural areas and driving to the site is recommended.

Tuesday 25 October 2022

Monday 24 October 2022

Threading the Needle Volume II by Richard Press –– grandson of J.Press founder

New Haven Mayor Justin Elicker joined Michinobu Yasumoto, president and CEO of J.Press /

Onward Holdings, who was in attendance from Japan, along with Richard Press –– grandson of

J.Press founder, Jacobi Press for the ribbon cutting ceremony and celebration. The event also

served as the official launch for Richard Press’ new book Threading the Needle Volume II giving

partygoers the opportunity for a signed copy and a first look at the new book.


Located at 262 Elm Street, the new store draws a direct link to the past as it adjoins the

previous J. Press location on York Street. Measuring 1,780 square feet, the building has been

restored to its original charm and has an austere exterior featuring classic J. Press blue

awnings. The shop has been decorated with vintage furniture from the original store and

Ivy-themed bric-a-brac. This new store will offer a colorful collection of sportswear and the

classic tailored clothing that J. Press has sold in New Haven for more than a century.


Sunday 23 October 2022

The Crown | Season 5 Official Trailer | Netflix / Netflix adds disclaimer under The Crown's trailer for series five

Netflix adds disclaimer under The Crown's trailer for series five


1 day ago


By Paul Glynn and Helen Bushby

Entertainment reporter


Netflix has added a disclaimer to its marketing for The Crown, saying the show is a "fictional dramatisation", "inspired by real-life events".


It appears under the YouTube trailer for the upcoming series five and on the streaming site's title synopsis page.


Netflix told BBC News the show "has always been presented as a drama based on historical events".


Dame Judi Dench and ex-Prime Minister Sir John Major have raised concerns about the accuracy of the royal drama.


The description of the series says: "Inspired by real events, this fictional dramatisation tells the story of Queen Elizabeth II and the political and personal events that shaped her reign."


Similar language has been used in press statements before, but no previous trailers or synopsis descriptions have carried the word "fictional".


This week, Dame Judi became the latest high-profile figure to call for The Crown to have a disclaimer at the start of each episode, to make clear the series is not necessarily true.


The actress, who is close to King Charles and the Queen Consort, said Netflix "seems willing to blur the lines between historical accuracy and crude sensationalism".


She added there was a risk that "a significant number of viewers" would take its events as historical truth.


The Oscar winner, who has portrayed Queen Victoria on screen, said suggestions expected to be made in the new series were "cruelly unjust to the individuals and damaging to the institution they represent", especially coming so soon after the death of the Queen.


'Scrutinised and well documented'

Netflix has defended The Crown, saying series five is "a fictional dramatisation, imagining what could have happened behind closed doors during a significant decade for the royal family - one that has already been scrutinised and well documented by journalists, biographers and historians."


The trailer for the new series, which airs on 9 November, was released on Thursday. It suggests the series will focus heavily on Diana, Princess of Wales, and the fallout as she and Prince Charles, as he was then, prepare to divorce.


It includes a recreation of Princess Diana's 1995 interview with Martin Bashir. The real footage will not be shown on the BBC again after an inquiry found "deceitful" means were used to obtain it.


Diana, played by Elizabeth Debicki, is seen telling Bashir, portrayed by Prasanna Puwanarajah: "I won't go quietly, I'll battle until the end." In real life, Princess Diana did not say that in the interview.


Netflix defends The Crown after John Major rebuke

Dame Judi's comments followed concerns by former prime minister Sir John Major, who said an upcoming scene that is said to include a conversation between him and Prince Charles, as he was then, about the Queen abdicating, was "a barrel-load of malicious nonsense"

Thursday 20 October 2022

The New Town in Edinburgh


The 18th century is the century of the Scottish Enlightenment, which brought in notable figures such as Adam Smith the economist or Robert Adam, the famous Neo-Classic Architect.

This is the century that brought the expansion of Edinburgh through the construction of the New Town, a large area built in  a fabulous Neo-Classical style, using an urban discourse of great scholarship and developing a successive series of streets, squares, terraces, crescents and circus.

 In Robert Adam's remarkable Charlotte Square, you can visit a National Trust house furnished and decorated in a pure Georgian style and illustrative of the everyday life of the time.

Edinburgh New Town | The best Georgian architecture anywhere!

The New Town is a central area of Edinburgh, the capital of Scotland. It was built in stages between 1767 and around 1850, and retains much of its original neo-classical and Georgian period architecture. Its best known street is Princes Street, facing Edinburgh Castle and the Old Town across the geological depression of the former Nor Loch. Together with the West End, the New Town was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site alongside the Old Town in 1995. The area is also famed for the New Town Gardens, a heritage designation since March 2001.


Proposal and planning

The idea of a New Town was first suggested in the late 17th century when the Duke of Albany and York (later King James VII and II), when resident Royal Commissioner at Holyrood Palace, encouraged the idea of having an extended regality to the north of the city and a North Bridge. He gave the city a grant:


That, when they should have occasion to enlarge their city by purchasing ground without the town, or to build bridges or arches for the accomplishing of the same, not only were the proprietors of such lands obliged to part with the same on reasonable terms, but when in possession thereof, they are to be erected into a regality in favour of the citizens.


It is possible that, with such patronage, the New Town may have been built many years earlier than it was but, in 1682, the Duke left the city and became King in 1685, only to lose the throne in 1688.


The decision to construct a New Town was taken by the city fathers, after overcrowding inside the walls of the Old Town reached breaking point and to prevent an exodus of wealthy citizens from the city to London.[3] The Age of Enlightenment had arrived in Edinburgh, and the outdated city fabric did not suit the professional and merchant classes who lived there. Lord Provost George Drummond succeeded in extending the boundary of the Royal Burgh to encompass the fields to the north of the Nor Loch, the heavily polluted body of water which occupied the valley immediately north of the city. A scheme to drain the Loch was put into action, although the process was not fully completed until 1817. Crossing points were built to access the new land; the North Bridge in 1772, and the Earthen Mound, which began as a tip for material excavated during construction of the New Town. The Mound, as it is known today, reached its present proportions in the 1830s.


As the successive stages of the New Town were developed, the rich moved northwards from cramped tenements in narrow closes into grand Georgian homes on wide roads. However, the poor remained in the Old Town.


The First New Town

A design competition was held in January 1766 to find a suitably modern layout for the new suburb. It was won by 26-year-old James Craig, who, following the natural contours of the land, proposed a simple axial grid, with a principal thoroughfare along the ridge linking two garden squares. Two other main roads were located downhill to the north and south with two minor streets between. Several mews off the minor streets provided stable lanes for the large homes. Completing the grid are three north-south cross streets.


Craig's original plan has not survived but it has been suggested that it is indicated on a map published by John Laurie in 1766. This map shows a diagonal layout with a central square reflecting a new era of civic Hanoverian British patriotism by echoing the design of the Union Flag. Both Princes Street and Queen Street are shown as double sided. A simpler revised design reflected the same spirit in the names of its streets and civic spaces.


Street names

The intended principal street was named George Street, after the king at the time, George III. Queen Street was to be located to the north, named after his wife, and St. Giles Street to the south, after the city's patron saint. St Andrew Square and St. George's Square were the names chosen to represent the union of Scotland and England. The idea was continued with the smaller Thistle Street (for Scotland's national emblem) between George Street and Queen Street, and Rose Street (for England's emblem) between George Street and Princes Street.


King George rejected the name St. Giles Street, St Giles being the patron saint of lepers and also the name of a slum area or 'rookery' on the edge of the City of London. It was therefore renamed Prince's Street after his eldest son, the Prince of Wales. The name of St. George's Square was changed to Charlotte Square, after the Queen, to avoid confusion with the existing George Square on the South Side of the Old Town. The westernmost blocks of Thistle Street were renamed Hill Street and Young Street, making Thistle Street half the length of Rose Street. The three streets completing the grid, Castle, Frederick and Hanover Streets, were named for the view of the castle, King George's second son Prince Frederick, and the House of Hanover respectively.


Craig's proposals hit further problems when development began. Initially the exposed new site was unpopular, leading to a £20 premium being offered to the first builder on site. This was received by John Young who built Thistle Court, the oldest remaining buildings in the New Town, at the east end of Thistle Street in 1767. Instead of building as a terrace as envisaged, he built a small courtyard. Doubts were overcome soon enough, and further construction started in the east with St. Andrew Square.


Craig had intended that the view along George Street be terminated by two large churches, situated at the outer edge of each square, on axis with George Street. Whilst the western church on Charlotte Square was built, at St Andrew Square the land behind the proposed church site was owned by Sir Lawrence Dundas. He decided to build a town mansion here and commissioned a design from Sir William Chambers. The resulting Palladian mansion, known as Dundas House, was completed in 1774. In 1825 it was acquired by the Royal Bank of Scotland and today is the registered office of the bank.. The forecourt of the building, with the equestrian monument to John Hope, 4th Earl of Hopetoun, occupies the proposed church site. St. Andrew's Church had to be built on a site on George Street. The lack of a visual termination at the end of this street was remedied in 1823 with William Burn's monument to Henry Dundas.


The first New Town was mainly completed by 1820, with the completion of Charlotte Square. This was built to a design by Robert Adam, and was the only architecturally unified section of the New Town. Adam also produced a design for St. George's Church, although his design was superseded by that of Robert Reid. The building, now known as West Register House, now houses part of the National Archives of Scotland. The north side of Charlotte Square features Bute House, formerly the official residence of the Secretary of State for Scotland and, since the introduction of devolution in Scotland, the official residence of the First Minister of Scotland.


A few small sections remained undeveloped at the time. In 1885 an unbuilt section of Queen Street (an open garden until that time), north of St Andrew Square, provided the site for the Scottish National Portrait Gallery. To the north-west, north of Charlotte Square, the land was part of the Earl of Moray's estate and a long-running boundary dispute with the Moray Estate. caused delay in development. A section of Glenfinlas Street at the north-west corner of Charlotte Square was not completed until 1990 while the western end of Queen Street, north of Charlotte Square, has never been developed.


Surviving Georgian buildings in Princes Street

The New Town was envisaged as a mainly residential suburb with a number of professional offices of domestic layout. It had few planned retail ground floors, however it did not take long for the commercial potential of the site to be realised. Shops were soon opened on Princes Street, and during the 19th century the majority of the townhouses on that street were replaced with larger commercial buildings. Occasional piecemeal redevelopment continues to this day, though most of Queen Street and Thistle Street, and large sections of George Street, Hanover, Frederick and Castle Streets, are still lined with their original late 18th century buildings.


Greek Revival architecture / VIDEO:What Did Ancient Greece Look Like? (Cinematic Animation)

Greek Revival architecture

Brandenburg Gate in Berlin, Germany.

Thomas Hamilton's design for the Royal High School, Edinburgh, completed 1829.

Klenze's Propyläen (Gateway) in Munich, 1854–1862.

The Yorkshire Museum designed by architect William Wilkins and officially opened in February 1830

The Greek Revival was an architectural movement of the late 18th and early 19th centuries, predominantly in Northern Europe and the United States. It revived the style of ancient Greek architecture, in particular the Greek temple, with varying degrees of thoroughness and consistency. A product of Hellenism, it may be looked upon as the last phase in the development of Neoclassical architecture, which had for long mainly drawn from Roman architecture. The term was first used by Charles Robert Cockerell in a lecture he gave as Professor of Architecture to the Royal Academy of Arts, London in 1842.

With a newfound access to Greece, or initially the books produced by the few who had actually been able to visit the sites, archaeologist-architects of the period studied the Doric and Ionic orders. In each country it touched, the style was looked on as the expression of local nationalism and civic virtue, and freedom from the lax detail and frivolity that was thought to characterize the architecture of France and Italy, two countries where the style never really took hold. This was especially the case in Britain, Germany and the United States, where the idiom was regarded as being free from ecclesiastical and aristocratic associations.

The taste for all things Greek in furniture and interior design, sometimes called Neo-Grec, was at its peak by the beginning of the 19th century, when the designs of Thomas Hope had influenced a number of decorative styles known variously as Neoclassical, Empire, Russian Empire, and Regency architecture in Britain. Greek Revival architecture took a different course in a number of countries, lasting until the Civil War in America (1860s) and even later in Scotland.

Rediscovery of Greece
Despite the unbounded prestige of ancient Greece among the educated elite of Europe, there was minimal direct knowledge of that civilization before the middle of the 18th century. The monuments of Greek antiquity were known chiefly from Pausanias and other literary sources. Visiting Ottoman Greece was difficult and dangerous business prior to the period of stagnation beginning with the Great Turkish War. Few Grand Tourists called on Athens during the first half of the 18th century, and none made any significant study of the architectural ruins.

It would take until the expedition funded by the Society of Dilettanti of 1751 by James Stuart and Nicholas Revett before serious archaeological inquiry began in earnest. Stuart and Revett's findings, published in 1762 (first volume) as The Antiquities of Athens, along with Julien-David Le Roy's Ruines des plus beaux monuments de la Grèce (1758) were the first accurate surveys of ancient Greek architecture.

Meanwhile, the rediscovery of the three relatively easily accessible Greek temples at Paestum in southern Italy created huge interest throughout Europe, and prints by Piranesi and others were widely circulated. Access to the originals in Greece itself only became easier after the Greek War of Independence ended in 1832; Lord Byron's participation and death during this had brought it additional prominence.

Following the travels to Greece of Nicholas Revett, a Suffolk gentleman architect, and the better remembered James Stuart in the early 1750s, intellectual curiosity quickly led to a desire to emulate. Stuart was commissioned after his return from Greece by George Lyttelton to produce the first Greek building in England, the garden temple at Hagley Hall (1758–59). A number of British architects in the second half of the century took up the expressive challenge of the Doric from their aristocratic patrons, including Benjamin Henry Latrobe (notably at Hammerwood Park and Ashdown House) and Sir John Soane, but it was to remain the private enthusiasm of connoisseurs up to the first decade of the 19th century. An early example of Greek Doric architecture (in the facade), married with a more Palladian interior, is the Revett-designed rural church of Ayot St Lawrence in Hertfordshire, commissioned in 1775 by Lord Lionel Lyde of the eponymous manor. The Doric columns of this church, with their "pie-crust crimped" details, are taken from drawings that Revett made of the Temple of Apollo on the Cycladic island of Delos, in the collection of books that he (and Stuart in some cases) produced, largely funded by special subscription by the Society of Dilettanti. See more in Terry Friedman's book "The Georgian Parish Church", Spire Books, 2004.

Façade of the British Museum

Seen in its wider social context, Greek Revival architecture sounded a new note of sobriety and restraint in public buildings in Britain around 1800 as an assertion of nationalism attendant on the Act of Union, the Napoleonic Wars, and the clamour for political reform. It was to be William Wilkins's winning design for the public competition for Downing College, Cambridge that announced the Greek style was to be a dominant idiom in architecture, especially for public buildings of this sort. Wilkins and Robert Smirke went on to build some of the most important buildings of the era, including the Theatre Royal, Covent Garden (1808–1809), the General Post Office (1824–1829) and the British Museum (1823–1848), the Wilkins Building of University College London (1826–1830) and the National Gallery (1832–1838).

Arguably the greatest British exponent of the style was Decimus Burton.

In London, twenty three Greek Revival Commissioners' churches were built between 1817 and 1829, the most notable being St.Pancras church by William and Henry William Inwood. In Scotland the style was avidly adopted by William Henry Playfair, Thomas Hamilton and Charles Robert Cockerell, who severally and jointly contributed to the massive expansion of Edinburgh's New Town, including the Calton Hill development and the Moray Estate. Such was the popularity of the Doric in Edinburgh that the city now enjoys a striking visual uniformity, and as such is sometimes whimsically referred to as "the Athens of the North".

  Edinburgh's New Town / "the Athens of the North".

Within Regency architecture the style already competed with Gothic Revival and the continuation of the less stringent Palladian and neoclassical styles of Georgian architecture, the other two remaining more common for houses, both in towns and English country houses. If it is tempting to see the Greek Revival as the expression of Regency authoritarianism, then the changing conditions of life in Britain made Doric the loser of the Battle of the Styles, dramatically symbolized by the selection of Charles Barry's Gothic design for the Palace of Westminster in 1836. Nevertheless, Greek continued to be in favour in Scotland well into the 1870s in the singular figure of Alexander Thomson, known as "Greek Thomson".

Germany and France

Leo von Klenze's Walhalla, Regensburg, Bavaria, 1842

In Germany, Greek Revival architecture is predominantly found in two centres, Berlin and Munich. In both locales, Doric was the court style rather than a popular movement, and was heavily patronised by Frederick William II of Prussia and Ludwig I of Bavaria as the expression of their desires for their respective seats to become the capital of Germany. The earliest Greek building was the Brandenburg Gate (1788–91) by Carl Gotthard Langhans, who modelled it on the Propylaea. Ten years after the death of Frederick the Great, the Berlin Akademie initiated a competition for a monument to the king that would promote "morality and patriotism."

Friedrich Gilly's unexecuted design for a temple raised above the Leipziger Platz caught the tenor of high idealism that the Germans sought in Greek architecture and was enormously influential on Karl Friedrich Schinkel and Leo von Klenze. Schinkel was in a position to stamp his mark on Berlin after the catastrophe of the French occupation ended in 1813; his work on what is now the Altes Museum, Konzerthaus Berlin, and the Neue Wache transformed that city. Similarly, in Munich von Klenze's Glyptothek and Walhalla memorial were the fulfilment of Gilly's vision of an orderly and moral German world. The purity and seriousness of the style was intended as an assertion of German national values and partly intended as a deliberate riposte to France, where it never really caught on.

By comparison, Greek Revival architecture in France was never popular with either the state or the public. What little there is started with Charles de Wailly's crypt in the church of St Leu-St Gilles (1773–80), and Claude Nicolas Ledoux's Barriere des Bonshommes (1785–89). First-hand evidence of Greek architecture was of very little importance to the French, due to the influence of Marc-Antoine Laugier's doctrines that sought to discern the principles of the Greeks instead of their mere practices. It would take until Labrouste's Neo-Grec of the Second Empire for Greek Revival architecture to flower briefly in France.


Saint Petersburg Bourse

The style was especially attractive in Russia, if only because they shared the Eastern Orthodox faith with the Greeks. The historic centre of Saint Petersburg was rebuilt by Alexander I of Russia, with many buildings giving the Greek Revival a Russian debut. The Saint Petersburg Bourse on Vasilievsky Island has a temple front with 44 Doric columns. Quarenghi's design for the Manege "mimics a 5th-century BC Athenian temple with a portico of eight Doric columns bearing a pediment and bas reliefs".

Leo von Klenze's expansion of the palace that is now the Hermitage Museum is another example of the style.

 The main building of the Academy of Athens, one of Theophil Hansen's "Trilogy" in central Athens.

Following the Greek War of Independence, Romantic Nationalist ideology encouraged the use of historically Greek architectural styles in place of Ottoman or pan-European ones. Classical architecture was used for secular public buildings, while Byzantine architecture was preferred for churches.

Examples of Greek Revival architecture in Greece include the Old Royal Palace (now the home of the Parliament of Greece), the Academy and University of Athens, the Zappeion, and the National Library of Greece. The most prominent architects in this style were northern Europeans such as Christian and Theophil Hansen and Ernst Ziller and German-trained Greeks such as Stamatios Kleanthis and Panagis Kalkos.

Rest of Europe

Austrian Parliament Building exterior

The style was generally popular in northern Europe, and not in the south (except for Greece itself), at least during the main period. Examples can be found in Poland, Lithuania, and Finland, where the assembly of Greek buildings in Helsinki city centre is particularly notable. At the cultural edges of Europe, in the Swedish region of western Finland, Greek Revival motifs might be grafted on a purely Baroque design, as in the design for Oravais Church by Jacob Rijf, 1792. A Greek Doric order, rendered in the anomalous form of pilasters, contrasts with the hipped roof and boldly scaled cupola and lantern, of wholly traditional Baroque inspiration.

In Austria, one of the best examples of this style is the Parliament Building designed by Theophil Hansen.

North America

Second Bank of the United States, Philadelphia, 1824.

While some eighteenth-century Americans had feared Greek democracy ("mobocracy"), the appeal of ancient Greece rose in the 19th century along with the growing acceptance of democracy. This made Greek architecture suddenly more attractive in both the North and South, for differing ideological purposes (for the North, Greek architecture symbolized the freedom of the Greeks; in the South it symbolized the cultural glories enabled by a slave society).[7] Thomas Jefferson owned a copy of the first volume of The Antiquities of Athens.[8] He never practiced in the style, but he played an important role introducing Greek Revival architecture to the United States.

In 1803, Jefferson appointed Benjamin Henry Latrobe as surveyor of public building in the United States, and Latrobe designed a number of important public buildings in Washington, D.C. and Philadelphia, including work on the United States Capitol and the Bank of Pennsylvania.

Latrobe's design for the Capitol was an imaginative interpretation of the classical orders not constrained by historical precedent, incorporating American motifs such as corncobs and tobacco leaves. This idiosyncratic approach became typical of the American attitude to Greek detailing. His overall plan for the Capitol did not survive, though many of his interiors did. He also did notable work on the Supreme Court interior (1806–1807), and his masterpiece was the Basilica of the Assumption of the Virgin Mary, Baltimore (1805–1821).

Latrobe claimed, "I am a bigoted Greek in the condemnation of the Roman architecture", but he did not rigidly impose Greek forms. "Our religion," he said, "requires a church wholly different from the temple, our legislative assemblies and our courts of justice, buildings of entirely different principles from their basilicas; and our amusements could not possibly be performed in their theatres or amphitheatres." His circle of junior colleagues became an informal school of Greek revivalists, and his influence shaped the next generation of American architects.

United States Supreme Court Building, Washington, D.C., 1935

Greek revival architecture in North America also included attention to interior decoration. The role of American women was critical for introducing a wholistic style of Greek-inspired design to American interiors. Innovations such as the Greek-inspired "sofa" and the "klismos chair" allowed both American women and men to pose as Greeks in their homes, and also in the numerous portraits of the period that show them lounging in Greek-inspired furniture.

The second phase in American Greek Revival saw the pupils of Latrobe create a monumental national style under the patronage of banker and hellenophile Nicholas Biddle, including such works as the Second Bank of the United States by William Strickland (1824), Biddle's home "Andalusia" by Thomas U. Walter (1835–1836), and Girard College, also by Walter (1833–1847). New York saw the construction (1833) of the row of Greek temples at Sailors' Snug Harbor on Staten Island. These had varied functions within a home for retired sailors.

From 1820 to 1850, the Greek Revival style dominated the United States, such as the Benjamin F. Clough House in Waltham, Massachusetts. It could also be found as far west as Springfield, Illinois. Examples of vernacular Greek Revival continued to be built even farther west, such as in Charles City, Iowa.

This style was very popular in the south of the US, where the Palladian colonnade was already popular in façades, and many mansions and houses were built for the merchants and rich plantation owners; Millford Plantation is regarded as one of the finest Greek Revival residential examples in the country.

Other notable American architects to use Greek Revival designs included Latrobe's student Robert Mills, who designed the Monumental Church and the Washington Monument, as well as George Hadfield and Gabriel Manigault.

At the same time, the popular appetite for the Greek was sustained by architectural pattern books, the most important of which was Asher Benjamin's The Practical House Carpenter (1830). This guide helped create the proliferation of Greek homes seen especially in northern New York State and in Connecticut's former Western Reserve in northeastern Ohio.

British colonies
In Canada, Montreal architect John Ostell designed a number of prominent Greek Revival buildings, including the first building on the McGill University campus and Montreal's original Custom House, now part of the Pointe-à-Callière Museum. The Toronto Street Post Office, completed in 1853, is another Canadian example.


Hittorff's reconstruction of Temple B at Selinus, 1851.

The discovery that the Greeks had painted their temples influenced the later development of the style. The archaeological dig at Aegina and Bassae in 1811–1812 by Cockerell, Otto Magnus von Stackelberg, and Karl Haller von Hallerstein had disinterred painted fragments of masonry daubed with impermanent colours. This revelation was a direct contradiction of Winckelmann's notion of the Greek temple as timeless, fixed, and pure in its whiteness.

In 1823, Samuel Angell discovered the coloured metopes of Temple C at Selinunte, Sicily and published them in 1826. The French architect Jacques Ignace Hittorff witnessed the exhibition of Angell's find and endeavoured to excavate Temple B at Selinus. His imaginative reconstructions of this temple were exhibited in Rome and Paris in 1824 and he went on to publish these as Architecture polychrome chez les Grecs (1830) and later in Restitution du Temple d'Empedocle a Selinote (1851). The controversy was to inspire von Klenze's "Aegina" room at the Munich Glyptothek of 1830, the first of his many speculative reconstructions of Greek colour.

Hittorff lectured in Paris in 1829–1830 that Greek temples had originally been painted ochre yellow, with the moulding and sculptural details in red, blue, green and gold. While this may or may not have been the case with older wooden or plain stone temples, it was definitely not the case with the more luxurious marble temples, where colour was used sparingly to accentuate architectural highlights.

Similarly, Henri Labrouste proposed a reconstruction of the temples at Paestum to the Académie des Beaux-Arts in 1829, decked out in startling colour, inverting the accepted chronology of the three Doric temples, thereby implying that the development of the Greek orders did not increase in formal complexity over time, i.e., the evolution from Doric to Corinthian was not inexorable. Both events were to cause a minor scandal. The emerging understanding that Greek art was subject to changing forces of environment and culture was a direct assault on the architectural rationalism of the day.